Your scholar-athlete Laura Marzano Kemper, MS ATC Bryn Mawr College B O DY
Exercise Nutrition • Why is it important? • Nutrition – ranks 3rd as a main contributor to athletic performance • Only behind genetics and conditioning level • Provides the fuel for all work • Goals: • Prepare the athlete for competition (pre) • Provide energy to sustain competition (during) • Aid with recovery process (post)
Nutrition • Proper nutrition has been found to: • Improve athletic performance • Allow for optimum levels conditioning to be met • Improve recovery, fatigue • Decrease injury risk Nutrition Journal, 2006
Energy • Calorie • Unit of energy; amount heat needed to raise temperature 1g water 1°C • Energy Intake • Different foods have different caloric values • Carbohydrates & Proteins • 4 calories per gram • Fats • 9 calories per gram
Nutrients • Macronutrients • Provide bulk of energy • Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen • Required in larger quantities • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Lipids (fats) • Micronutrients • Vitamins • Minerals • Needed in much smaller quantities
Carbohydrates • Major energy source for fuel • Should make up 50-60% total daily calories • Stored in muscles and liver • Conversion sugars, starches into glucose • Low blood glucose = dizziness, headaches, decreased work • Carbohydrates deplete after 1-2 hrs of exercise • need to replenish immediately after exercise with a high carb/ low-moderate protein snack/meal
Simple -quick burst of energy Complex -provide steady stream of energy -longer digestion time
Proteins • Should make up 20-25% total daily calories • 135lb athlete 71-83grams/day • Protein supplements • *Well balanced diet = do not need to use protein supplements* Healthy Examples: Chocolate milk ( NOT fat-free)
The Protein Reality • Protein needs Sedentary adult 0.8 gm/kg Sedentary adolescent 0.9-1.0 gm/kg Elite adolescent gymnast 1.3-1.4 gm/kg Elite adolescent soccer player 1.6-2.0gm/kg Triathlete 1.8-2.0 gm/kg • Recommended Intake1.3-2.0 gm/kg (**2-3 servings of high quality protein a day)
Fats • Should make up 20-25% total daily calories • Also a fuel source for endurance exercise • Carbs → fats → proteins • Other functions: • Insulation • Cell structure • Nerve transmission • Hormone production • Aids intestines absorbing fat soluble vitamins • A, D, E, K
Vitamins & Minerals • Vitamins • Organic substances • Needed by body in small amounts • Activate chemicals • Body cannot manufacture • Except Vitamin D • Balanced diet = no need for supplement** • Multi-vitamin • Intense activity • increases need for vitamins Focus on: 1) High color 2) 5-9 serving a day! 3) Variety
Minerals • 4% body mass • Provide structure • Bone (bone density vs loss), teeth • Maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle contractions • Regulate metabolism • Calcium, Iron • May need supplement • Particularly females • Zinc • Protein synthesis, healing and immune function – meat, poultry, seafood and whole grains
A dose of Insurance? • A multivitamin with no more that 100% of the Daily Value (DV) • every other day • REAL GOAL: Variety of fruits, veggies, whole grains- • **supplements are NOT a replacement for food
Bottom Line • Habitual consumption of foods high in anti-oxidant value are associated with significant health benefits. • Hundreds of antioxidants, some of which act synergistically, are available in foods.
Hydration 13-20 ounces 2to 3 hours prior to game or practice. 8-10 ounces every 15-20 mins during exercise Water 60-75% total body weight Daily intake: 2.5 L Water balance important In vs. Out Extreme temperatures
Electrolyte Replenishment • Sodium, potassium, and chloride • Regulate fluid exchange within body • Sports Drinks (commercial or homemade)
Biggest issues • Energy intake is too low • Loss of mm mass, menstrual dysfunction, decreased bone density, increased injury rate/risk, prolonged recovery, fatigue • Carbohydrate intake is too low • Fatigue • Fluid intake maybe too low • Dehydration • Fat intake may be too low • at least 20% for athletes
The BIG Question: What DO I Eat, When??? • Pre-game (3-4 hours) - High Carb, low fiber, low fat, moderate protein, adequate fluid • Pre-game snack (1 hour) - smaller portion, heavier on carbs, LOTS of fluids • Post-game – High carbs, low to moderate protein
Recovery Sleep: at least 8 hours a night. Yes, even here at BMC. * Try to go to bed at the same time every night to help your body develop a routine. Cool down/ Stretching: gentle re-stretching and lengthening of warm muscles post-workout is one of the best ways to prevent injury and allow stressed muscle to heal properly.
Refuel eat breakfast everyday & remember to eat lots of fruits & veggies for antioxidants, protein for muscle repair and whole-grain carbs for energy.
Replenishment 3meals/day and a pre-workout snack will help keep your blood sugar level stable and help your muscles repair & refuel themselves effectively. Replenishment should begin within 60 mins of activity to maximize muscle glycogen restoration.
Kick-start Restoration! • Post-workout rehydration: immediate rehydration with a cool sports drink is ideal. The electrolytes in the drink help speed reabsorption of fluid from the gut after digestion. • Hydro-therapy: that’s right, the cold whirlpool does work! Or try a warm shower with self massage for 10 mins.