Intro. 310 Asian Humanities Tues. August 30 Nomads and Warriors. Kushans who were. Kushan Empire. Who were the Kushans? Time period ? What was their point of origin ? Expansion ? What were their characteristics ? What is their importance to the
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Intro 310 Asian Humanities Tues. August 30 Nomads and Warriors
Kushans who were Kushan Empire Who were the Kushans? Time period? What was their point of origin? Expansion? What were their characteristics? What is their importance to the study of early Asian history and trade?
Kushans answers Kushan Empire Who were the Kushans? Time period? 1st - 3nd cen. What was their point of origin? Expansion? Northern Steppes of China -- driven Further West. What were their characteristics? -- nomads, warriors, expansionistic. Eventually unified under one ruler. Accommodated a variety of different religions Acquisitive of luxury goods and ideas: gold coins, religions, Greek alphabet/ script. Employed their own language (Bactrian)
Kushans supplies Kushan Origins Who were the Kushans? Origins:Yuezhi - nomadic tribes in Northern Steppes Supplied the Chinese with horses Xinjiang province Chariot and horses, Qin dynasty, 200 BC
Kushans supplies2 Kushan Origins Supplied the Chinese with horses … and jade Xinjiang province Jade burial suit, Han dynasty, 200 BCE-200 CE
Silk roap map1 By 1st c. BCE, driven West by competing nomads Map #1
Silk roap map2 Map #2
Kushans2 Kushan art Importance? -- As a cross-roads culture Development of The Gandahara sculptural style Birth of Buddha
Kushans2 Kushan art Importance: -- As a cross-roads culture Maya’s dream - from the current Asia Society exhibit (on blog)
Kushan coins Kushan coinage Importance? -- a culture that adopted and adapted other cultural forms; silk route champion. -- accommodated and embraced multiple religions, ideas. Possibly aiding spread of Buddhism to China Image of Kanishka Greek Helios, obverse Shiva, obverse side
Kushans who were Kushan Empire Significance: Kushans give us an example of: * interaction between nomadic and sedentary groups. * the transition from nomadic to sedentary lifestyle. * Cultural exchanges of the 1st – 2nd century in the silk road region.
The Bactrian Hoard: Material Remains as Cultural Heritage Hidden Treasures from the National Museum, Kabul http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=19X1s9AOSWY&playnext=1&list=PLDA04D47BC85C8108
The (unfolding) Story of the Bactrian Hoard Late 1978 - Russian archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi discovers the collection. 1979 - Soviets invade and occupy Afghanistan. 1989 - Soviets withdraw, defeated by US trained mujahidin forces, who subsequently battle for control of the country. 1996 - Taliban comes into power, begin stringent Islamic rule, destroying non-Islamic artwork, including the Bamiyan Buddhas (2001). 2001 - Attempts to find the hoard and blow open the palace vaults fail as the Taliban retreats and Americans move in. 2006 - President Karzai announces the hoard’s recovery. An international team present as the safes are opened. 2008 - Afghanistan initiates an extensive overseas showing of the 2011 collection -- France, Italy, Amsterdam USA, UK, Germany -- though Afghanistan itself cannot display it.
Destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas 1997, Bamiyan Buddha 2001, post-destruction 2009, reconstruction attempts
Bactrian Hoard Recovery Breaking into the safes, April 2004 20,600 gold items were part of the hoard, Including 2,000 coins from the Kushan empire
Bactrian Hoard collection Aphrodite brooch with Greek, India, and Asian influences
Bactrian Hoard collection Gold pendant inlaid with jewels
Bactrian Hoard collection The Bactrian Hoard collection A folding, portablecrown from Tillya Tepe
Bactrian Hoard -- Kushan coins Nana, Iranian healing goddess Kanishka, Iranian god of fire Athso
Controversy in Exhibition: Secrets of the Silk Road (on the blog) • From China, mounted at Penn Museum early 2011. • Focused on burial site and mummies found in Western China. • Located in Tarim Basin, skirting the Taklamakan desert (Xinjiang, Western China). • Controversy: DNA indicates Caucasoid features. Garments also suggested origins from outside the region. • Would it fuel arguments of minority separatist groups, notably China’s Uighur peoples?
Coming up: Ancient Maritime Connection Th/Sept. 1: view an on-line exhibit noted on the blog; what do you learn? How do you rate it? ***Reading response/blog entry #1. due: 10 a.m. Sept. 1 *** Log onto the blog and 1) introduce yourself; 2) comment on an aspect that you find most compelling from the readings from the first 2 weeks (2-3 paragraphs).