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Everything I know about science…

Everything I know about science…

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Everything I know about science…

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  1. Everything I know about science… By: Desiree Williams Period 2

  2. Scientific Method • Matter 19)Waves • Phase Changes 20) Sound • Physical and chemical changes 21) Electromagnetic waves • Solutions 22)Light waves actions • Mixtures 23)Light • Chemical Properties 24)Color • Elements 25)Electricity movement • Electron configuration 26)Lightning • Metals 27 )Circuits • Ions 28)Resistance • Covalent bonds 29) Newton's laws • Energy 30)My feelings. • Momentum, power and work • Simple machines • Kinetic theory of matter • Heat transfer • Materials Table of contents:

  3. 1) Observation/Research question- Something you notice, and then a question that cant be a personal judgment, or opinion .Has to be testable. • 2)Variables- Independent variable is something you(the experimenter) changes. Dependent variable is what happens as a result of the I.V and the constant variable stays the same. • 3)Hypothesis is an educated guess( If and then statement). • 4)Procedure- Step by step process that gets you the results of your experiment. • 5) Analyze and record data- Where you document your results. A T-chart is used to maintain organization and graphs show the relationship of the iv on the dv. A line graph is used to show time, a bar graph is for everything else. • 6)Conclusion- Summarizes the whole experiment and tells what you have learned. • Extra information : An inference, is a logical explanation. Scientific Method:

  4. Solid-Particles are tightly packed (Ex. Book) • Liquid- Particles move around bumping into each other(Ex. Water) • Gas-Particles are spread far apart.(Ex. Helium) • Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. • Solid ,Liquid ,Gas! ------------------- Matter:

  5. Melting point: Solid to a liquid.(Ex. Ice cube to water) • Freezing Point: Liquid to a solid .(Ex. Water to ice cube) • Boiling point/Evaporation: Liquid to a gas .(Ex. Water to steam) • Sublimation: Solid to a gas .(Ex. Dry ice to co2) • Condensation: Gas to a liquid .(Ex. A cup of cold ice water) Phase Changes:

  6. Physical Change: Chemical Change: • Change in appearance. • Ex. Cutting a paper, Painting on a wall or ice melting. • When a new substance is formed • Ex. Tarnish on silver, Algae on a fish tank, Mold on bread. 3 chemical changes • Flammability • Combustion • Reactivity Physical & Chemical Changes:

  7. When one substance is dissolved in another. • Solute-Getting dissolved .(Ex. Tums tablet) • Solvent- Doing the dissolving .(Ex. Acid) • Liquid solutions (Salt in water). Gaseous Solutions( Air) • Solid Solution- One metal is dissolved in another. • Unsaturated solution- When the solution can hold more solute. • Saturated solution- Can not dissolve anymore. • Super saturated: Over full Solutions:

  8. Can be separated • No new substance is made • Substances maintain there own properties. • Two types : • Homogenous- You can’t see the diff. particles in the mixture (Ex. Water) • Heterogeneous- You can see the diff. particles (Ex. Trail mix) Mixtures:

  9. Physical property: Describes physical changes you use your senses to describe physical properties. • Malleability: How well something can be molded. • Hardness: How hard a substance is • Conductivity: How well a substance allows heat and electricity to pass through it. • Viscosity: How think a fluid • Solubility: How well one substance dissolves into another • Density : How thick an object is and the objects ability to float. • Buoyancy: Means to float. • Density formula: Properties:

  10. Elements are pure substances made up of one type of atom( Found on periodic table) Ex. Gold • Compounds: Made up of two or more elements and are found everywhere. Ex. Desk • Atoms: Smallest parts of matter • Molecules: Combination of two or more atoms ( Found everywhere) • Protons are positively charged, and found in the nucleus. • Neutrons are neutrally charged and found in the nucleus. • Electrons are negatively charged and are found orbiting in electron clouds. Elements:

  11. Used because they save space and are easier to use. • Electron clouds can hold.. • The energy level is the Electron cloud. • S,P, and D are the types of orbital's. • 2, 6, and 10 are the amounts of electrons. • Electron cloud: 2) 1s to the second power. 8) 2s to the second power, p to the sixth power. 8) 3s to the second power, p to the sixth power. 18)4s to the second power, 3d to the tenth power, 4p to the sixth power. 18) 5s to the second power, 4d to the tenth power, 5p to the sixth power. Electron configuration:

  12. Metals: Ductile, shiny, malleable, good conductors, used for lubricants, fertilizers, and photography. • Non-Metals: Are opposite of metals. Not ductile, not shiny, not malleable, not good conductors, used for insulators on wire because there poor conductors of heat, and weapons. • Transitional elements: Are metals most high melting and boiling points, used to form strong metals, jewelry, pipes, cars, bikes, cooking utensils, and cleaners. • Noble gasses: Very stable elements, it takes a lot for them to bond with other elements, these gasses are colorless, tasteless, and odorless. • Metalloids: Have a mixture of characteristics from metals and non metals the y are used in the semiconductors industry got making computer chips, for cell phones, cars, laptops, and gaming systems. Metals:

  13. Ions: An atom in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons. • Two types of ions: • Cations- Positively charged atom meaning It has more protons the electrons. • Anions- This is the negatively charged atom, this means it has more electrons then protons. • Ionic bonds is when an atom looses its electrons. It takes place between metals and non metals. Metals will loose their electrons and non metals will gain electrons. There is a maximum of 3 electrons to either be gained or lost. The valence electron is the outer most shell. Ions:

  14. When electrons are shared between two atoms. • Only nonmetals will do this kind of bonding. • In order to show covalent bonds we draw dot diagrams. • Naming covalent bonds prefixes. 1)Mono, 2)Di,3)tri, 4)tetra, 5)penta, 6)hexa, 7) hepta. • Group 16&17 hydrogen comes first, group 13,14, and15 hydrogen comes 2nd. • When non metals bond the metal on the farthest left comes first. Covalent bonds:

  15. Energy- the ability to cause a change. • Potential energy- Stored energy ex. Ball at the top of a hill. Formula is Pe= mxgxh • Gravities constant is 9.8m/s squared. • Kinetic energy- energy in motion. Ex. Ball rolling. Formula is Ke=.5xmassxvilocity to the second power. • Speed=D/t Energy:

  16. Momentum: Something that described velocity, Formula is p= Mass x Velocity and is measured in kg.m/s to the second power. • Work: Using a force to move something a certain distance. Formula is work= Force times distance. • Power: Rate of work. Formula is Power=Work/ Time Extra definitions:

  17. A device made to make work easier. Ex. Broom or a rake. • Input force is what you do to make the device move ex. Moving the rake. Output forces are what the machine is supposed to do . Ex. Gathering the leafs. • Mechanical advantage is how much easier the machine makes work. Ma= Output force divided by input force. • Efficiency s how well the machine does what its supposed to. Friction decreases efficiency, lubricant increase efficiency. • Wedges used to hold or split things ex. Hoe (gardening tool) Pulleys lift things ex. A flag pole. • Screws hold things together ex. Bolts. Inclined planes are ramps ex. Handicap ramps. Wheel and axle ex. Door knob. And a lever ex. A seesaw • Compound machines are a combination of diff. machines. Ex. Car Simple machines:

  18. Particles move in all states of matter. • Two ways to measure movement. • Temperature: Measures average movement of particles. • Thermal energy measures all movement of particles. • Temp scales : Celsius freezes at 0degrees and boils at 100degrees. In Fahrenheit freezes at 32degrees, and boils at 212degrees. Kinetic theory of matter:

  19. Conduction-Heat transferred by touch (Ex. Touching a hot stove) • Convection- Transfer of heat through a liquid( Ex. Hot Coco ) • Radiation- Transfer of heat through the air. (Ex. Heater) Transfer Of Heat:

  20. Conductors allow heat and electricity to pass through (Ex. Any type of metals) • Insulators do not allow heat or electricity to pass through (Ex. Paper, wood, people) • Specific heat is the amount of energy needed to move 1 gram of a substance to 1degree Celsius. (SH=C; measured in J) Materials:

  21. Wave- When energy is transferred from one place to another. • Medium- a material some waves need to move energy through. • Mechanical waves need a medium to move energy (Ex. Earthquake) • Electromagnetic waves do not need a medium (Ex. Outer space) • Transverse waves go up and down, Longitude waves go side to side. • Refract is the waves speed.(Ex. Spoon in water) • Reflect is a wave bouncing off and back (Ex. Waves in a swimming pool) • Diffraction is when a wave moves around or in-between things. • Constructive inference is adding two waves together it becomes the sum of both waves. • Destructive inference is when the negative and positive waves come together to even it out. Waves:

  22. Sound is the vibrating of an objects back and forth movements. • Humans make sound by breathing in and out, their vocal cords vibrate to create sound • Sound waves go into your ear, absorbed by the ear then it goes deeper into the ear. • Sound moves quickest through a solid, then liquid and slowest through a gas, it also moves quicker in hot weather. • Pitch is how high the sound is. • Intensity is the strength of the sound. • If its intense it has a higher amplitude. • Infrasound is very low sounds that human cant hear (Ex. Elephants) • Ultrasound is very high sound waves (Ex. Dolphins) • The Doppler effect is the sound source. (Ex. A police siren sounds faint from afar but as it approaches you , it becomes a lot more intense.) • You can control sound waves by putting a muzzle on a barking dog. Sound:

  23. A scale that tells us the speed of electromagnetic waves .( Ten to the power of four is the lowest, ten to the power of twenty-four is the highest) • It goes radio waves(Stereo), Microwaves(microwave oven) Inferred( Machines that measure heat) Visible light( Computer screen) UV rays ( Tanning beds) X rays (seeing bones) and gamma rays(Seeing organs) Electromagnetic Spectrum:

  24. Reflects: Bounces off of things • Absorbs: takes in • Transmissions: Passes through. COLOR • White reflects all light • Black absorbs all light • Scattering is how light bounces off of particles. • Transparent: Clear you can see through(Ex. Water) • Translucent: See the shape. (Ex. Fog) • Opaque: You can see through it (Ex. Eye lids) Light waves:

  25. Every objects reflects and absorbs light. • Light rays: an imaginary line that travels in the same direction as the wave • Diffuse reflection: Light reflected in all angels. • Angle of reflection :The same as the light rays that are put upon the given surface. • Law of reflection :Angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. • Virtual image: What you see in a mirror is deeper than the surface. • Convex: makes images smaller • Concave: Magnifies images • Real Image: The image is on the paper behind the mirror, not appearing Light:

  26. The color reflected is the color of the object. • Primary colors are red, yellow and blue. • 7 major wavelengths in visible light, Red, Orange, Yellow, green, Blue, indigo, violet.(Many diff shades) • Black absorbs all wavelengths white reflects them. • The eye sees color, the rod cells allow us to see different shades of grey. The cone cells indentify a certain color(Red, blue, or green) Colors:

  27. Repel means not to be attracted to. • Unlike charges are attracted to one another. • An electrical field is an area that surrounds an electrically charged object. • Static electricity is the build of an electrical charge in one place. • There is three ways to charge an object. • Induction: Objects are not touching. • Contact: Two objects became in contact and became charged • Polarization: When all alike charges pull away and unlike charges go together Electricity Movements:

  28. Lighting is formed in three steps. • Build up of electrical charge • Separation of charge • The release of the charge. • Ground: Material that allows electrons to go into the earth. (Ex. Lightning Rod) Lightning:

  29. Electrical circuits: Paths that allow electrons to flow. • Four Parts: • Switch: Turns on and off the circuit • Voltage source: Power source. • Conductor: Material that allows electricity to run through. • Power Source: The object being powered. • Series Circuit has one path for electrons to flow through.(Ex. Christmas lights) • Parallel circuits have multiple paths for electrons to flow through.( Ex. Schools computer lab) Circuits:

  30. Slows down the movement. • Conductors have low resistance, insulators have high resistance. Resistance:

  31. 1st- Inertia: An object in motion will stay in motion until a force is acted upon it; Force is needed to move, and stop any movement. (Ex. A ball rolling) • 2nd- An object with more mass will need more force to move (Ex. Full shopping cart will need more force then an empty one) • 3d- For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. (Ex. Leaning on a wall) Newton's laws:

  32. This semester was a success. • I learned new things, and was reminded of some old things I had been taught. • I refreshed my mind, and was able to understand everything we were taught. • Nothing in my slide show was hard for me to understand, and if I had any troubles to begin with, I worked them out and now I understand it more then ever. I feel….