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Chapter 3 Enabling Technologies. Zhenlong Li, Qunying Huang and Zhipeng Gui. Learning Objective. Develop basic understanding of cloud computing enabling technologies: Hardware advancements Computing technologies Virtualization Distributed file system Web x.0 technologies.

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Chapter 3 Enabling Technologies

Zhenlong Li, Qunying Huang and ZhipengGui

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

learning objective
Learning Objective
  • Develop basic understanding of cloud computing enabling technologies:
  • Hardware advancements
  • Computing technologies
  • Virtualization
  • Distributed file system
  • Web x.0 technologies

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

learning modules
Learning Modules
  • Hardware advancements
  • Computing technologies
  • Virtualization
  • Distributed file system
  • Web x.0 technologies
  • Discussion

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

hardware advancements multi core and many core technologies
Hardware advancements:Multi-core and Many-core Technologies

Single-core and multi-thread computing model is unable to meet the intensive computing demand

Multi-core CPU was first used in late 1900s

Characterized by low electricity consumption, efficient space utilization, and favorable performance

Help cloud providers build energy-efficient and high performance data centers

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

hardware advancements networking
Hardware advancements: Networking

Cloud computing provides services in a multi-tenant environment where network is serving as the “glue” function.

  • Cloud services are delivered to cloud consumers through network.
  • Private cloud, public cloud and hybrid cloud are defined by the networking relationship between cloud consumers and providers.

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

hardware advancements storage and smart devices
Hardware advancements: Storage and Smart Devices

Cloud storage is a virtualized extensible resource.

Cloud services usually need a large volume of storage to ensure elastic support for consumers.

The fast developing hard-drive technologies meet the storage need of cloud computing.

Smart devices accelerate the development of cloud computing by enriching its access channels for cloud consumers.

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

learning modules1
Learning Modules
  • Hardware advancements
  • Computing technologies
  • Virtualization
  • Distributed file system
  • Web x.0 technologies
  • Discussion

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

computing technologies distributed computing paradigm
Computing technologies:Distributed Computing Paradigm

Distributed computing: utilize computing capacity from multiple distributed computers to address larger computational problems.

Distributed computing is the most obvious predecessor technology that enabled the inception of cloud computing.

Distributed computing: an infrastructure that delivers storage and compute resources.

Cloud computing: make extensive and highly virtualized resources easily available and scalable over the Internet as services.

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

computing technologies computing architecture model
Computing technologies: Computing Architecture Model

Client/Server (C/S) model

  • offering a central repository of computers
  • personal computers and workstations serving as terminals

Browser/Server (B/S) model

  • web browser is used as the client program
  • unifying different client programs in the C/S model
  • simplifying the system development, maintenance and usage

B/S is the key computing architecture model in the evolution of cloud computing

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

learning modules2
Learning Modules
  • Hardware advancements
  • Computing technologies
  • Virtualization
  • Distributed file system
  • Web x.0 technologies
  • Discussion

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

virtualization implementation
Virtualization: Implementation

Hypervisor establishes an abstraction layer between the VMs and the underlying hardware.

Hypervisor captures CPU instructions, and acts as a coordinator for instructions to access hardware controllers and peripherals.

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

virtualization implementation1
Virtualization: Implementation

Full virtualization

  • Based on the host/guest paradigm
  • Each guest runs on a virtual imitation of the hardware layer

Para-virtualization

  • Attempts to provide most functions directly from the underlying hardware instead of abstracting it
  • Overcomes performance overhead introduced by the hypervisor in a full virtualization approach

Hardware virtualization

  • A virtualization solution when the hypervisor is embedded in the circuits of a hardware component

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

virtualization solutions
Virtualization: Solutions

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

learning modules3
Learning Modules
  • Hardware advancements
  • Computing technologies
  • Virtualization
  • Distributed file system
  • Web x.0 technologies
  • Discussion

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

distributed file system dfs
Distributed File System (DFS)

DFS allows access to files from multiple hosts, via a computer network.

DFS enables multiple machines to share files and storage resources.

DFS usually serves on the top of local file systems (lower level file system).

The client nodes do not have direct access to the underlying block storage but interact over the network using a protocol.

Cloud computing utilizes the distributed data storage technology to store data.

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

dfs google file system gfs
DFS: Google File System(GFS)

Developed by Google for large distributed data-intensive applications.

Major difference compared to Network File System(NFS)

  • Bigger chunks: Google chunk size is 64MB. This design is more suitable for big file and then provides better IO performance.
  • Multiple data replication: to guarantee the reliability, GFS provides at least 3 data redundancies.
  • Not local caching: unlike NFS which offer local caching at client side, GFS doesn’t support local caching.

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

dfs hadoop distributed file system hdfs
DFS: Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)

An open source distributed file system designed to run on commodity hardware.

HDFS is designed considering the following characteristics:

  • Failures are normal rather than the exception;
  • Large data sets (huge file size, typical in GB to TB);
  • Streaming data access, e.g., file is sequential read;
  • Append to write;
  • Hundreds of concurrent write accesses;
  • Bandwidth is more important than latency;
  • Moving computation is cheaper than moving data.

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

learning modules4
Learning Modules
  • Hardware advancements
  • Computing technologies
  • Virtualization
  • Distributed file system
  • Web x.0 technologies
  • Discussion

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

web x 0 the evolution of web
Web x.0: The evolution of Web

Web 1.0

  • emerged as early as 1993
  • the web pages are static

Web 2.0.

  • first coined in 2004 ,
  • the web pages are dynamic and editable

Web 3.0

  • aims to make the Web more intelligent
  • also called Intelligence Web 

Web 4.0

  • still a developing conception, no clear and exact definition is formed yet

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

web x 0 web services
Web x.0: Web Services

A web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network

SOAP-based web services:

  • Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
  • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • XML is extensively used

REST-based web services:

  • retrieve information through simple HTTP methods such as GET, POST, PUT and DELETE.
  • E.g. Google APIs, Yahoo APIs and OGC services

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

web x 0 service oriented architecture soa
Web x.0: Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)

A SOA-based system is comprised of many loosely coupled services.

Benefits of using SOA:

  • Component reusing
  • Existing system integration
  • Language and platform independent

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

web x 0 cloud computing and soa
Web x.0: Cloud computing and SOA
  • -- SOA is an architecture focusing on answering the question of “how to develop applications”.
  • -- Cloud computing is an infrastructure emphasizing on the solution of “how to deliver applications”.

Cloud computing, to a large extent, leverages the concept of SOA, especially in the SaaS and PaaS layers.

They have different emphasis:

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

learning modules5
Learning Modules
  • Hardware advancements
  • Computing technologies
  • Virtualization
  • Distributed file system
  • Web x.0 technologies
  • Discussion

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

discussion questions
Discussion Questions
  • Please enumerate the key enabling technologies of cloud computing from the aspects of hardware, computing, file system and the Web.
  • Why many-core technology could help cloud providers build energy-efficient data centers?
  • Why networking is important to cloud computing?
  • What is virtualization and how it helps enable cloud computing? Please enumerate five virtualization solutions.
  • What are the major differences between a distributed file system (DFS) and a traditional file system? Please give two examples of DFS.
  • Please enumerate the development stages of the Web.
  • What are the characteristics of SOA and how SOA relates to cloud computing?

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.

references
References

Aghaei, S., M. A. Nematbakhsh, and H. K. Farsani. 2012. "Evolution Of The World Wide Web: From Web 1.0 To Web 4.0." International Journal of Web & Semantic Technology (IJWesT) 3, no. 1 .

Benslimane, D., S. Dustdar, and A. Sheth. 2008. "Services mashups: The new generation of web applications." Internet Computing, IEEE 12, no. 5: 13-15.

Borthakur, D. 2007. "The hadoop distributed file system: Architecture and design." Hadoop Project Website 11: 21.

Chai, L., Q. Gao, and D. K. Panda. 2007. "Understanding the impact of multi-core architecture in cluster computing: A case study with intel dual-core system." In Cluster Computing and the Grid, 2007. CCGRID 2007. Seventh IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 471-478. IEEE.

Foster, I., Y. Zhao, I. Raicu, and S. Lu. 2008. "Cloud computing and grid computing 360-degree compared." In Grid Computing Environments Workshop, 2008. GCE'08, pp. 1-10. Ieee.

Ghemawat, S., H. Gobioff, and S. Leung. 2003. "The Google file system." In ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 29-43. ACM.

Mell, P., and T. Grance. 2011. "The NIST definition of cloud computing (draft)." NIST special publication 800: 145.

Pase, D. M., and M. A. Eckl.2005. "A comparison of single-core and dual-core Opteron processor performance for HPC."IBM xSeries Performance Development and Analysis.

Shvachko, K., H. Kuang, S. Radia, and R. Chansler. 2010. "The hadoop distributed file system." In Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST),IEEE 26th Symposium on, pp. 1-10. IEEE.

Sagona, P. 2009. "A preliminary performance analysis of medical image registration on single-core and multi-core clusters." Lecture Notes in Computer Science. doi 10, no. 1.130: 1367.

Shakian, A. 2011. Oracle Cloud File System. Oracle White Paper.http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/products/cloud-storage/cloudfs-overview-wp-279856.pdf? ssSourceSiteId=ocomen(Accessed March 12, 2013).

Sahoo, J., S. Mohapatra, and R. Lath. 2010. "Virtualization: A survey on concepts, taxonomy and associated security issues." In Computer and Network Technology (ICCNT), 2010 Second International Conference on, pp. 222-226. IEEE.

T OGRAPH, B., and Y. RICHARD MORGENS. 2008. " Cloud computing." Communications of the ACM 51, no. 7.

Vaquero, L. M., L. Rodero-Merino, J. Caceres, and M. Lindner. 2008. " A break in the clouds: towards a cloud definition." ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 39, no. 1: 50-55.

Youseff, L., M. Butrico, and D. D. Silva. 2008. "Toward a unified ontology of cloud computing." Grid Computing Environments Workshop.GCE'08.IEEE.

Yeager, P. S. "A distributed file system for distributed conferencing system." PhD diss., University of Florida, 2003.

Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp. 31-46.