Creativity CRS/EDL 560 Foundations of Creative Learning and Thinking
I need someone well versed in the art of torture. Do you know PowerPoint?
Hilda Taba* Technique • List the words on individual slips of paper. • Group the words. • Label the groups.*Hilda Taba is an educational theorist who developed the concept attainment model.
Lets Define Creativity….. Write your own definition…… (it doesn’t have to be creative)
Definitions of Creativity • You cannot use up creativity. The more you use the more you have.Maya Angelou • Common definition from Webster's - Creativity is marked by the ability or power to create, to bring into existence, to invest with a new form, to produce through imaginative skill, to make or bring into existence something new.
Definitions of Creativity • Ken Robinson -- The having of original ideas that have value. • Carl Rodgers (psychologist an writer) -- The emergence of a novel, relational product, growing out of the uniqueness of the individual. • Henry Miller ( writer) -- The occurrence of a composition which is both new and valuable.
Definitions of Creativity • MihalyiCsikszentmihalyi (Flow) : (chick-sent-me-high or “Mike”) • Creativity is any act idea or product that changes an existing domain or that transforms and existing domain into a new one. • BIG C creativity • Domain: symbolic rules and procedure • Field: the gatekeepers of the domain • Person: the creative one
Constructs of Creativity • Person • Process • Product • Environment
Constructs of Creativity • What are you like? • How do you work? • What do you make? • What conditions make your creative work possible?
Constructs of CreativityPaul E. TorranceJ.P Guilford Structure of the Intellect • Fluency = lots of ideas • Flexibility = different ideas • Elaboration = adding details • Originality = unique ideas
Stages of CreativityGraham Wallas • Preparation • Incubation • Illumination • Verification
Creative ProfileMark Batey Manchester Business School • Idea Generation(Fluency, Originality, Incubation and Illumination) • Personality (Curiosity and Tolerance for Ambiguity) • Motivation (Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Achievement) • Confidence (Producing, Sharing and Implementing)
Stages of CreativityCreativity at Work Jeff DeGraff & Katherine Lawrence • Incubate(Long-term Development) • Imagine(Breakthrough Ideas) • Improve(Incremental Adjustments) • Invest(Short-term Goals)
Teresa Amabile: The Personality of Creativity • Give examples of when you were or are particularly intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. What are the conditions that stimulate each condition? Does extrinsic motivation ever change into intrinsic or vice versa? • At the end of the article Amabile suggests three ways to keep creativity alive. How do you think you can apply these suggestions in the classroom? • How do we knowingly or unknowingly inhibit students’ creativity? Do you recognize Amabile’s 6 inhibitors in your own work? • Give examples of things in the school that support or suppress creativity.
Creative BehaviorJuanita Sagan, Oakland California • The Institute for Creative and Artistic Development (ICAD) – Oakland California • Integration: an assimilation of the important emotional and intellectual aspects of a person’s experience. • Credit Taking: Giving yourself recognition and praise for things you do to help yourself and others. • Changing symbol systems to synthesize information
Brain Research on Emotions and Cognition Antonio Damasio The Feeling of What Happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain
Brain Research on Emotions and Cognition Antonio Damasio • Somatic marker theory • As-if body states – mirror neurons • Difference between emotions and feelings • Feelings = perception of a change in body state brought about by emotion
Brain Research on Emotions and Cognition Antonio Damasio • Descarte said, “I think therefore I am.” • Spinoza rejected Descarte’s mind/body dualism -- mind and body are one. • Damasio’s ideas can be expressed as something like “I feel therefore I think.”
Brain Research on Emotions and Cognition Antonio Damasio
Theories of Creativity • Psychoanalytic • Humanist • Behaviorist – Developmental • Cognitive • Systems Approach
Theories of Creativity • Threshold definition • Personality theorists • Process • Situation • Modern
Threshold Theory • Intelligence is necessary but not sufficient for creative accomplishments to occur. • The relationship between IQ and Creativity is apparent in people whose IQ is below 120. After that there is little predictive value.
Which is the most creative? • Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony • Spielberg’s movie E.T. • Einstein’s Theory of Relativity • Angela’s latest fitness craze • Henri’s award winning new hair style • Reagan’s theory of “Trickle-Down” economics
Which is the most intelligent? • Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony • Spielberg’s movie E.T. • Einstein’s Theory of Relativity • Angela’s latest fitness craze • Henri’s award winning new hair style • Reagan’s theory of “Trickle-Down” economics
Theories of Creativity • Threshold Theory • Psychoanalytic Theorists – Unconscious drive • Freud • Kubie • Kris • Jung
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalytic Perspective • Creativity is said to be the outcome of the unconscious neurotic conflict. Creativity is at the service of the id. • Difference between primary process thinking (daydreams, fantasies) and secondary process thinking analytic and logical.
Freud on creativity & the unconscious Defense mechanism - sublimation Desires of Id suppressed Unconscious Sublimation Conscious Creative Act Primary Process – Relaxation Periods Secondary Process – Logical periods Fantasy allows the creativity regression to playful thinking
Ernest Kris • Fantastic, freely wandering thought processes tend to discharge libido and aggression. • Creativity results when there is a shift from the preconscious to the conscious—an illuminating experience. • Creativity is at the service of the ego which controls defense mechanisms.
Kris – Theory of Creativity Creativity involves the ability to regress to a childlike frame of mind. C U Pre Conscious Free- wandering thought processes Creative fantasies Importance of Playfulness!
Lawrence Kubie • Creativity takes place between the conscious and the unconscious that is in the preconscious. • Creativity is the new and unexpected connections, metaphorical relationships overlapping meanings, puns and allegories.
Kubie – Theory of Creativity Continuum Repressed experience U C Pre Symbol Systems Language Anchored in Reality Can engage in free Play Symbolic Process May be accessed by drugs or hypnosis. Connections Metaphors Creativity
Carl Jung • Archetypes– • Psychological type: draws from the realm of human experiences which raise the consciousness to greater levels of understanding • Visionary type: the creative process consists in an unconscious animation of the archetype and in a development and shaping of this image till the work is completed.
Jung – Theory of Creativity Unconscious Mind Personal Past Collective Past Creativity happens through a person by communing with both types of unconscious thought.
Theories of Creativity • Threshold Theory • Psychoanalytic Theorists – Unconscious drive • Behaviorists – Reinforced behavior • Skinner
Behavioral Principlesof Creativity > Product of genetic and environmental history. (Skinner) > Increase behavior by rewarding it. (Maltzman) S-R S-R unrelated Combination of 2 experiences. > Mental Associations has a large number of verbal and non verbal associations to connect.
Humanistic Perspective • Self actualization is an intrinsic drive • The self actualized person approaches all aspects of life in a creative way • Special talent creativity vs. Self actualized creativity • Conditions for creativity.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Aesthetic Self - Actualization Self - Esteem Belonging Safety Physical Needs
Characteristics of Self Actualized People • Spontaneous Expressive • Natural Less Controlled • Less Inhibited • “Relatively un-frightened by the unknown, the mysterious and often positively attracted by it…selectively pick out things to puzzle over, to mediate on and to be absorbed in work.” Maslow, 1967 • Peak experiences – lost in the present. • Self actualized creativity vs. Special talent creativity. • Deficient needs vs. Being needs vs. Aesthetic needs.
Theories of Creativity • Threshold Theory • Psychoanalytic Theorists – Unconscious drive • Behaviorists – Reinforced behavior • Cognitivists- A way of thinking • Humanists – a state of being • Maslow • Rogers
Theories of Creativity • Threshold Theory – IQ and Creativity • Psychoanalytic Theorists – Unconscious drive • Behaviorists – Reinforced behavior • Cognitivists- A way of thinking • Humanists – a state of being • Contemporary Theorists- a systems and developmental approach Amabile Simonton Gruber Csikszentmihalyi Gardner Sternberg
Gruber • Studied traits of creative individuals • Task commitment • Through working hard you transform yourself and what would be hard for others becomes easy for you. • The greatest fun is the work. • Creative people combine a zest for work with a capacity to play