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The Minority Among Minorities: Success Factors Surrounding Hmong College Students. Dr. Donna Talbot, Peter K.X. Xiong , and Jason Atherton . Introduction . Dr . Donna Talbot Peter K.X. Xiong Jason Atherton . Presentation Outcomes .

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the minority among minorities success factors surrounding hmong college students

The Minority Among Minorities: Success Factors Surrounding Hmong College Students

Dr. Donna Talbot, Peter K.X. Xiong, and Jason Atherton

introduction
Introduction
  • Dr. Donna Talbot
  • Peter K.X. Xiong
  • Jason Atherton
presentation outcomes
Presentation Outcomes
  • An understanding who Hmong college students are and how they differ from other Asian American ethnicities.
  • An understanding of current barriers that Hmong college students face.
  • An understanding of strategies that affect Hmong college student success.
  • An understanding of the implication of this study and further studies on Hmong American college students.
how we got started
How We Got Started
  • EDLD 6890: Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education at Western Michigan University.
  • Underrepresented and underserved population: Lack of Hmong research in higher education.
  • Xiong, S., & Lee, S. E. (2011). Hmong students in higher education and academic support programs article sparked interest and foundation.
who are hmong americans
Who Are Hmong Americans?
  • Considered to be the aboriginals of China and settled around 3000 B.C.
  • Emigrated south to the regions of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Burma, and Thailand).
  • Allies to the U.S. during the Vietnam War: Aided the CIA in Secret War in Laos
  • Three waves of immigration to U.S.
    • First: 1975-1984
    • Second: 1985-1999
    • Third:2003-present
who are hmong americans cont
Who Are Hmong Americans? (cont.)
  • US Census data:
    • 1990 - 94,439
    • 2000 - 186,310
    • 2010 - 260,073
  • CA, MN, and WI consisted of 87% of total Hmong American students enrolled in school in 2010 (Xiong, 2012).
  • Enrollment patterns in higher education: Public-95% vs Private-5%
cultural challenges
Cultural Challenges
  • Hmong American students receive little to no help with their academics (Pfeifer, 2005; Xiong and Lee, 2011).
  • Hmong parents are often non-English speakers; this fact poses a language barrier (Pfeifer, 2005).
  • Hmong American students may often experience a sense of cultural dissonance in their social identities (Cheryan & Tsai, 2007).
the model minority stereotype
The Model Minority Stereotype
  • Homogenizes the Asian American population, masking the diversity within Asian American communities due to social class, religion, language, ethnicity, migratory status, length of residence, and education.
  • General image of what Americans perceive of Asian Americans as a group.
  • The Model Minority creates a false impression that Hmong Americans students are the stereotype high academic achieving students who are well off.
current status of hmong in education
Current Status of Hmong in Education
  • Hmong Americans with a H.S. diploma or equivalent 27.2% compared to U.S. population 49.7% (Pfeifer, 2005).
  • Hmong Americans with an associate or bachelor’s degree 11.7% and 1.5% with graduate degrees, compared to U.S. population 21.9% and 8.9% (Yang & Pfeifer, 2004).
  • Similar to other Southeast Asian populations, 18.5% Hmong families live in poverty (Lee, 2007).
  • Hmong college students have reported being underprepared for college (Xiong &Lee, 2011).
research questions
Research Questions
  • What challenges do Hmong college students face in obtaining a Higher Education degree?
  • How welcome do Hmong college students feel on their campus?
  • What do Hmong college students report as helping them to be successful?
demographics of study
Demographics of Study
  • Criteria for being included in the study:
    • (1) of Hmong descent;
    • (2) attending a public 4-year institution;
    • (3) located in Minnesota, Wisconsin or California;
    • (4) between ages 18-23 years old
  • Total number of student respondents= 178
  • Total number of students in clean data= 127
  • Number of males=37 (29%); number of females= 90 (71%)
demographics of study cont
Demographics of Study (cont.)

States in which students attended higher education

California36%

Wisconsin

41%

Minnesota

23%

demographics continued
Demographics continued…
  • Year in school:
    • Freshman (17.6%)
    • Sophomores (20.8%)
    • Juniors (28.8%)
    • Seniors (32.8%)
  • 39% indicated they were affiliated with any religious/spiritual student organization
  • 29% said they were the first in family to pursue a college degree
demographics continued1
Demographics continued…
  • Generation Identity:
    • First Generation: 8.7%
    • 1.5 Generation: 17.3%
    • Second Generation: 73.2%
    • Third Generation: 0.8%
  • 80% of student participants were born in the U.S.
college choice and experiences
College choice and experiences
  • Why did you decide to attend college?
    • 47.6% indicated it was a personal goal
    • 13.7% indicated pressure from parents/family
    • 16.1% said career goals
  • Hours worked per week:
    • 30.6% worked 11-20 hours
    • 32.3% did not work
description of campus experiences
Description of campus experiences
  • Over 62% of participants felt safe on campus
  • Over 61% of students felt neutral about or agreed that they felt welcome in the residence halls
  • 41.8% of students report using an academic support program
challenges in higher education
Challenges in Higher Education
  • More than 50% of participants reported the following as challenges:
    • Lack of money
    • Study habits/skills
    • Time management
    • Lack of time to study
    • Motivation
    • Lack of direction for career goals
    • Responsibilities at home
my college campus is well represented by asian american
My college campus is well represented by Asian American…
  • …students (over 50% agreed or strongly agreed)
  • …staff/administrators (44% disagreed or strongly disagreed; 29.6% were neutral)
  • …faculty (34.8% disagreed or strongly disagreed; 36.5% were neutral)
qualitative results
Qualitative Results

Themes from data:

  • What challenges do you face:
    • Financial hardships
    • Family obligation
    • Lack of preparation
    • Disconnect from Hmong community
    • Lack of Hmong role models
qualitative results cont
Qualitative Results (cont.)
  • What are some ways you receive support:
    • Family (parents and siblings)
    • Hmong friends/community
    • Inspiration from parents and elders history of immigration
    • Academic success programs
    • Religion/Spirtual
discussion
Discussion
  • What are you seeing as the experiences of Hmong college students on your campus?
  • What type of success programs or initiatives do you have that directly involve Hmong college students?
our recommendations based on findings
Our recommendations based on findings
  • Need to have a student organization to identify with (Hmong, Southeast Asian, or Asian)
  • Hmong education and cultural awareness (Hmong excluded in American history)
  • Institutions and community outreach to educate Hmong parents regarding college due to language barrier (admissions, financial aid, etc.)
  • Financial barriers need to be addressed with scholarships and education
limitations of the study
Limitations of the study
  • Did not include 2-year institutions and 4-year private institutions
  • Focused only on traditional aged students (18-24 years)
  • Focused on only three states: CA, MN, & WI
  • Uneven distribution among the three states
  • Mostly female participates
  • Used student organizations as a way to contact students
  • Only five articles can be found with a focus on Hmong college students from 1996 to 2010(Xiong & Lam, 2013)
future research
Future Research
  • Explore 2-year institutions and 4-year private institutions
  • Out-of-state vs. In-state
  • Focus on other states (e.g. North Carolina)
  • Include both involved and uninvolved students
  • Identify transfer students
  • Graduate students
  • Qualitative studies
thank you
Thank you
  • Questions, Comments, Feedback
  • Dr. Donna Talbot (donna.talbot@wmich.edu)
  • Peter K.X. Xiong (peterkxxiong@gmail.com)
    • *Email Peter for more information or copy of the PowerPoint
  • Jason Atherton (jatherto@fiu.edu)
references
References

Chou, R. S., & Feagin, J. R. (2008). The myth of the model minority: Asian Americans facing racism. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.

Cheryan, S., & Tsai, J. L. (2007). Ethnic identity. In F.T. L. Leong, A. G. Inman, A. Ebreo, L. H.

Her, V. K., & Buley-Meissner, M. L. (2006). Why would we want these students here?: Barriers to building to campus community partnerships. Hmong Studies Journal, 7, 1-43.

Huffcutt, M. (2010). American Hmong Youth and College Readiness: Integrating Culture and Educational Success (Master's thesis). Retrieved from www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2010/2010huffcuttm.pdf

references1
References

Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (1998). Studying college students in the 21st century: Meeting new challenges. Review of Higher Education, 21(2), 151-165.

Xiong, S., & Lee, S. E. (2011). Hmong students in higher education and academic support programs. Hmong Studies Journal, 12, 1-20.

Yang, K. (2001). Becoming American: The Hmong American experience. Ethnic Studies

Yang, L. Kinoshita, & M. Fu (Eds.), Handbook of Asian American Psychology, 2nd ed., pp.125-139. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE publication.

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