BRAVEHEART The Story of William Wallace during the reign of Edward I of England
SIR WILLIAM WALLACE • Born 1270 near Renfrew, Scotland; • Died Aug. 23rd, 1305, in London
Wallace was: • A National Hero • Leader of Scottish resistance forces during the long, and ultimately successful, struggle to free Scotland from English rule.
In 1296 • Edward I of England: • Deposed Scottish king (John Balliol) • Declared self King/Ruler of Scotland
The Resistance Begins • May 1297 • Wallace and a band of 30 some men burned Lanark and killed its English sheriff. • Wallace then organized an army of commoners and small landowners and attacked the English garrisons between the Rivers Forth and Tay.
Sept. 11, 1297 • English response, led by the Earl of Surrey, John de Warenne • THE BATTLE OF STIRLING • Wallace and his forces were greatly outnumbered, but Surrey had to cross a bridge before reaching the Scottish positions…the English were slaughtered as they crossed the river.
Stirling Castle • Captured by Wallace after the overwhelming victory at Stirling • AND, for the moment, Scotland was nearly free of occupying forces from England.
OCTOBER 1297 • Wallace invades northern England, specifically York, and ravaged the counties of Northumberland and Cumberland.
December 1297 • Wallace returns to Scotland: • Knighted • Named guardian of the kingdom • However, many of the nobles lent him support only grudgingly • Also, Wallace was yet to confront Edward I
Edward I • Returns to England from the campaigns in France in March 1298. • July 3rd • Invades Scotland • July 22nd • Confronts Wallace at Falkirk
BATTLE OF FALKIRK • Wallace’s spearmen were defeated by archers and cavalry from England. • Wallace received help from forces opposed to Edward I, but was ultimately overwhelmed by English forces after half-hearted help from Scottish nobles. • Battle RUINED Wallace’s military reputation
December 1298 • Wallace resigns guardianship of Scotland • Succeeded by Robert de Bruce (later King Robert I) • THEN…WALLACE DISAPPEARS…..
Autumn 1299-Summer 1304 • Wallace whereabouts unknown… some ideas were: • He was in France in 1299 • Acted as a solitary guerrilla leader in Scotland • But his true activities are unknown…
Scottish submission • Most of the Scottish nobles submitted to Edward I in 1304. • Felt that it was their only way to co-exist with the dominant English ruler.
Aug. 5, 1305 • Wallace is captured and arrested near Glasgow, Scotland. • He was taken to London, and condemned as a traitor to the king, even though, as he maintained, he had never sworn allegiance to Edward.
Wallace’s End • He was: • Hanged • Disemboweled • Beheaded • Quartered
In 1306 • Robert de Bruce • Begins a new rebellion • Wins Independence for Scotland in 1314.
Edward I of England • Son of Henry III • King during a period of rising national consciousness in England (1272-1307)
Edward I achievements • Strengthened the crown and Parliament against the old feudal nobility • Subdued Wales, destroying its autonomy • Sought (albeit unsuccessfully) the conquest of Scotland. • Reign noted particularly for administrative efficiency and legal reform. • Introduced series of statutes to strengthen crown and feudal hierarchy • Defined and emendated English law
Edward’s Scottish Relationship • Relations were amicable and the border had been remarkably peaceful for nearly 100 years before the reign of Edward I. • He inaugurated more than 250 years of bitter hatred, savage warfare, and bloody border forays.
CHARACTERS IN THE MOVIE Need to know these in order to understand what happens throughout the production
William’s family • Sir Malcolm Wallace, his father • A small landowner in Renfrew. • John Wallace, his brother • Argyle Wallace, his uncle • Rich patron who took him on a pilgrimage to Rome
CAMPBELL’S • Hemish Campbell- William’s best friend from his youth • Campbell- father of Hemish
McClannough’s • Murron McClannough- Wallace’s childhood love and his wife • McClannough- Murron’s father
Robert de Bruce • The 17th Bruce, later the guardian of Scotland • His father- 16th Bruce- kept in hiding from the nobles due to appearance
Scottish Nobles • Craig- the bald guy in the movie • Mournay- dark hair, looks like he belongs in a Genesis music video • Lochland- tall, skinny, blondish skullet
The English Group • Edward I- the “Longshanks” • Prince Edward, later Edward II, the fourth son of Edward I • Phillip- character of Piers Gaveston, supposed lover of Edward II • Princess Isabelle- princess of France • Escort to the princess
Stephen • The Irishman • He is the comic relief of the tale