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The Development of Orthodox Christianity and the New Testament. By Ed Hensley. My Background. Southern Baptist Texas Fundamentalist Churches Moderate Family Not fluent in Hebrew, Greek, or Latin Not a scholar Send corrections to

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The Development of Orthodox Christianity and the New Testament

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my background
My Background
  • Southern Baptist
  • Texas
  • Fundamentalist Churches
  • Moderate Family
  • Not fluent in Hebrew, Greek, or Latin
  • Not a scholar
  • Send corrections to
outline of this study today s lessons in bold
Outline of this StudyToday’s Lessons In Bold
  • Early Versions of Christianity
  • Development of Orthodox Christianity
  • Development of Christian Canons
    • Editing the Books of the Canons
    • Books No Longer in the Canon(s)
    • Selecting Books for the Canons
  • Development of Anti-Judaism in Christianity
  • Non-Canonical Books and Myths referenced in the NT – This Lesson
  • Important Contradictions in the NT and OT – This Lesson
hell in the bible
Hell In The Bible
  • Sheol – Hebrew word for grave or pit.
    • Pit 3 times, Grave 31 times, Hell 31 times. Hell is English form of Sheol.
  • Hades – Name of both Greek god & his underworld for the dead
    • Grave 1 time, Hell 10 times, all in NT.
    • The Christian concept of hell was clearly influenced by the Greek Hades.
  • Gehenna – Location of burning trash near Jerusalem
    • Hell 12 times in NT.
  • Tartarus – Prison of the Titans & very wicked people in Greek myths. As far below Hades as earth is below heaven.
    • Hell 1 time. NIV gives a footnote showing the true word is Tartarus.
hell in the bible1
Hell In The Bible
  • 2 Peter 2:4For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but sent them tohell,[a] putting them in chains of darknessto be held for judgment; --
    • This passage clearly links the NT with Greek mythology. If the NT is literally true, then Tartarus exists and therefore the Greek gods and Titans exist.
  • Jude 1: 6 And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their proper dwelling—thesehe has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day.
    • Another reference to angels bound in chains of darkness. This passage does not use Hades or Tartarus, but it does show the same concept. There are other similar verses in the NT.
  • 2 Peter 2:4Greek Tartarus
testament assumption of moses in jude
Testament/Assumption of Moses in Jude
  • 8 In the very same way, on the strength of their dreams these ungodly people pollute their own bodies, reject authority and heap abuse on celestial beings. 9 But even the archangel Michael, when he was disputing with the devil about the body of Moses, did not himself dare to condemn him for slander but said, “The Lord rebuke you!”[d]10 Yet these people slander whatever they do not understand, and the very things they do understand by instinct—as irrational animals do—will destroy them.
    • Jude 1:9Jude is alluding to the Jewish Testament of Moses (approximately the first century a.d.). (NIV footnote)
  • Nowhere in the bible does the archangel Michael battle Moses.
  • If the NT is the true word of god and it references the Testament of Moses, why is the Testament of Moses not in the NT.
testament assumption of moses in jude1
Testament/Assumption of Moses in Jude
  • Gelasius(Ecclesiastical HistoryII.21.7) refers to the dispute between Michael and the Devil in the Assumption of Moses. This episode is not found in the manuscript published by Ceriani, but is often referred to in patristic sources and even already in the New Testament in Jude, verse 9. (The allusion is not identified in Jude but is specified in Clement, Origen and other patristic sources.) ... In view of the citations in Gelasius, some have suggested that the Testament and the Assumption were combined in a single book. The surviving Latin text is incomplete, and may have concluded with an account of the assumption of Moses. Origen (De Principiis III.2.1) uses the title 'Ascension of Moses' for the document which contains the dispute between Michael and the Devil, i.e. the Assumption of Moses." (Outside the Old Testament, p. 145)
book of enoch quoted in jude
Book of Enoch Quoted in Jude

Jude 1:14Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about them: “See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones 15 to judge everyone, and to convict all of them of all the ungodly acts they have committed in their ungodliness, and of all the defiant words ungodly sinners have spoken against him.” [e]

[e] Jude 1:15 From the Jewish First Book of Enoch (approximately the first century b.c.) (NIV footnote)

  • Book of Enoch 1:9 And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all,And to destroy all the ungodly: and to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, and of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
enoch in genesis
Enoch In Genesis
  • Genesis 5:21When Enoch had lived 65 years, he became the father of Methuselah. 22 …Altogether, Enoch lived a total of 365 years. 24 Enoch walked faithfully with God; then he was no more, because God took him away.
  • What does it mean “then he was no more, because God took him away”? Genesis says no more about Enoch. As usual, (fan fiction) books were written to add details to this simple, amazing, but incomplete statement.
  • 1 Enoch, 2 Enoch, and 3 Enoch, aka The Book of Enoch, are perhaps the most important of Jewish Pseudapigrapha.
  • Only complete copy is in Ethiopian Ge’ez language. Aramaic fragments found in Dead Sea Scrolls. Some Latin and Greek fragments exist as well. The Book Of Giants is similar.
genesis 6 details in enoch
Genesis 6 Details in Enoch
  • Genesis 6:1 When human beings began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, 2 the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose.3 Then the Lord said, “My Spirit will not contend with humans forever, for they are mortal; their days will be a hundred and twenty years.”
  • 4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown.
  • Book of Enoch adds details to this short, interesting story.
  • Phrase “sons of god” literally means Jesus not only son of god.
  • Phrase “heroes of old, men of renown” implies story that happened long before it was written.
highlights of the book of enoch
Highlights of the Book of Enoch
  • Section I (1-36) is mainly concerned with pronouncing God's judgment by Enoch on the angels, or watchers who fell through their love for the daughters of men (Gen. 6:1-4), and Enoch's intercession for them. A weird description of Hades is found in this portion of 1 Enoch.
  • Section II (37-71) has three "parables," or apocalyptic revelations, together with the story of Enoch's translation into heaven.
  • Section III (72-87) is primarily concerned with furnishing a treatise on astronomy, the secrets of the movement of the stars as revealed to Enoch, who sees with his own eyes their very course, even the portals through which they enter and issue forth, for the purpose of transmitting the information to future generations.
other highlights of book of enoch
Other Highlights of Book of Enoch
  • Section IV runs along lines laid down in the first two portions dealing with the problem of sin and suffering of Israel. Enoch relates to Methuselah his visions of the deluge, the fall of the angels, and their punishment in the underworld, the deliverance of Noah, the Exodus, the giving of the Law, the conquest of Canaan, the time of the judges, the establishment of the united kingdom, the building of the temple, the story of the two kingdoms, the fall of the Northern Kingdom, and the Exile. This is followed by four periods of angelic rule up to the time of the Maccabean Revolt, the last assault of the Gentiles, and the great Judgment. The last part of Section IV contains the prediction of the foundation of the new Jerusalem, the conversion of the Gentiles, the resurrection of the righteous, and the coming of the Messiah.
other highlights of book of enoch1
Other Highlights of Book of Enoch
  • Section V seems to be mainly devoted to the problem of suffering of the righteous and the prosperity of the oppressing sinners. It denounces evil and utters woes on sinners and promises blessings to the righteous.

Enoch 7:1 And all the others [angels who agreed to mate with women] together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms 2 and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they 3 became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed 4 all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against 5 them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and 6 fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones.

details of genesis 6 in book of enoch
Details of Genesis 6 in Book of Enoch

Enoch 8:1 And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all 2 colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 3 were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armarosthe resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . .

details of genesis 6 in book of enoch1
Details of Genesis 6 in Book of Enoch

9:1 And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being 2 shed upon the earth, and all lawlessness being wrought upon the earth. … And they said to the Lord of the ages: ‘…Thou seest these things and … and Thou dost not say to us what we are to do to them in regard to these.‘

10:1 Then said the Most High…sent Uriel to the son of Lamech [Noah], … and reveal to him the end that is approaching: … a deluge is about to come…. And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness… And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication… And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves 12 with them in all their uncleanness. …bind them fast for seventy generations …till the day of their judgement…, till the judgement that is 13 for ever and ever is consummated.

cosmic tour in the book of enoch
Cosmic Tour in the Book of Enoch

21: … I saw neither 3 a heaven above nor a firmly founded earth, but a place chaotic and horrible. And there I saw 4 seven stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire. Then 5 I said: 'For what sin are they bound, …' Then said Uriel…: 'Enoch… These are of the number of the stars of heaven, which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and are bound here till ten thousand years, 7 the time entailed by their sins, are consummated.' And from thence I went to another place, which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw a horrible thing: a great fire there which burnt and blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being full of great descending columns of 8 fire: neither its extent or magnitude could I see, nor could I conjecture. Then I said: 'How 9 fearful is the place and how terrible to look upon!' Then Uriel answered me…: 'This place is the prison of the angels, and here they will be imprisoned for ever.'

cosmic tour in the book of enoch1
Cosmic Tour in the Book of Enoch

1 And thence I went to another place, and he mountain [and] of hard rock. 2 And there was in it four hollow places, deep and wide and very smooth. … 3 Then Raphael …said unto me: 'These hollow places have been created for this very purpose, that the spirits of the souls of the dead should 4 assemble therein, yea that all the souls of the children of men should assemble here. And these places have been made to receive them till the day of their judgement and till their appointed period [till the period appointed], till the great judgement (comes) upon them.'

cosmic tour in the book of enoch2
Cosmic Tour in the Book of Enoch

I saw (the spirit of) a dead man making suit, …. And I asked Raphael the angel who was 6 with me, and I said unto him: 'This spirit which maketh suit, whose is it, whose voice goeth forth and maketh suit to heaven ' 7 And he answered me saying: 'This is the spirit which went forth from Abel, whom his brother Cain slew, and he makes his suit against him till his seed is destroyed from the face of the earth, and his seed is annihilated from amongst the seed of men.'

cosmic tour in the book of enoch3
Cosmic Tour in the Book of Enoch

8 Then I asked regarding … all the hollow places: 'Why is one separated from the other' 9 And he answered me …: 'These three have been made that the spirits of the dead might be separated. And such a division has been make (for) the spirits of the righteous, in which there is the bright spring of 10 water. And such has been made for sinners when they die and are buried in the earth and judgement has not been executed on them in their 11 lifetime. Here their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain till the great day of judgement and punishment and torment of those who curse for ever and retribution for their spirits. There 12 He shall bind them for ever. And such a division has been made for the spirits of those who make their suit, who make disclosures concerning their destruction, when they were slain in the days 13 of the sinners. Such has been made for the spirits of men who were not righteous but sinners, who were complete in transgression, and of the transgressors they shall be companions: but their spirits shall not be slain in the day of judgement nor shall they be raised from thence.'

cosmic tour in the book of enoch4
Cosmic Tour in the Book of Enoch

23: 1,2 From thence I went to another place to the west of the ends of the earth. And I saw a burning 3 fire which ran without resting, and paused not from its course day or night but (ran) regularly. And 4 I asked saying: 'What is this which rests not' Then Raguel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered me and said unto me: 'This course of fire which thou hast seen is the fire in the west which persecutes all the luminaries of heaven.‘

  • The description of Hell or Tartarus continues for a few more chapters.
cosmic tour in the book of enoch5
Cosmic Tour in the Book of Enoch

Enoch 32: Then 6 I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.'

cosmic tour in the book of enoch6
Cosmic Tour in the Book of Enoch

Enoch 33: 1 And from thence I went to the ends of the earth and saw there great beasts, and each differed from the other; and (I saw) birds also differing in appearance and beauty and voice, the one differing from the other. And to the east of those beasts I saw the ends of the earth whereon the heaven 2 rests, and the portals of the heaven open. And I saw how the stars of heaven come forth, and 3 I counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote down all their outlets, of each individual star by itself, according to their number and their names, their courses and their positions, and their 4 times and their months, as Uriel the holy angel who was with me showed me. He showed all things to me and wrote them down for me: also their names he wrote for me, and their laws and their companies.

cosmic tour in the book of enoch7
Cosmic Tour in the Book of Enoch

Enoch 34: 1 And from thence I went towards the north to the ends of the earth, and there I saw a great and 2 glorious device at the ends of the whole earth. And here I saw three portals of heaven open in the heaven: through each of them proceed north winds: when they blow there is cold, hail, frost, 3 snow, dew, and rain. And out of one portal they blow for good: but when they blow through the other two portals, it is with violence and affliction on the earth, and they blow with violence.

cosmic tour in the book of enoch8
Cosmic Tour in the Book of Enoch

Enoch 36: 1 And from thence I went to the south to the ends of the earth, and saw there three open portals 2 of the heaven: and thence there come dew, rain, and wind. And from thence I went to the east to the ends of the heaven, and saw here the three eastern portals of heaven open and small portals 3 above them. Through each of these small portals pass the stars of heaven and run their course to the west on the path which is shown to them. And as often as I saw I blessed always the Lord of Glory… to show the greatness of His work to the angels and to spirits and to men…: that they might see the work of His might and praise the great work of His hands and bless Him for ever.

  • The last sentence is similar to claims of people today who see visions of heaven.
genesis 1 elohim makes adam eve after animals are made
Genesis 1: Elohim Makes Adam & Eve After Animals Are Made
  • Genesis 1: 25God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.
  • 26 Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals,[a] and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”
  • 27 So God created mankind in his own image,    in the image of God he created them;    male and female he created them.
  • Genesis 1 uses only the word Elohim in Hebrew for god.
genesis 2 yahweh makes adam then animals then eve
Genesis 2: Yahweh Makes Adam,Then Animals, Then Eve

Genesis 2:7Then the Lord God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being… 18The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him.” 19Now the Lord God had formed out of the ground all the wild animals and all the birds in the sky. He brought them to the man to see what he would name them…But for Adam no suitable helper was found.21 So the Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, he took one of the man’s ribs and then closed up the place with flesh. 22 Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man.

  • Genesis 2 uses the word Yahweh for god.
5 th plagues kill all egyptian livestock but livestock are back 14 verses later
5th Plagues Kill All Egyptian Livestock,But Livestock are back 14 verses later

Exodus 9:6 And the next day the Lord did it: All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one animal belonging to the Israelites died…20 Those officials of Pharaoh who feared the word of the Lord hurried to bring their slaves and their livestock inside. 21 But those who ignored the word of the Lord left their slaves and livestock in the field…So the Lord rained hail on the land of Egypt; 24 hail fell and lightning flashed back and forth. It was the worst storm in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 25 Throughout Egypt hail struck everything in the fields—both people and animals;

genesis was written 1000s of years after events occurred
Genesis Was Written 1000s of Years After Events Occurred

Gen 14:14 When Abram heard that his relative had been taken captive, he called out the 318 trained men born in his household and went in pursuit as far as Dan.

Judges 18:28 The Danites rebuilt the city and settled there. 29 They named it Dan after their forefather Dan, who was born to Israel—though the city used to be called Laish.

Dan did not exist until Judges 18:29 immediately after Samson’s death (Judges 16) around 1050 BC. Therefore, Gen 14 could not have been written until 1050 BC, over 800 years the events of Gen 14 in 1916 BC and 2850 years after the creation in 4000 BC.

Timeline Used:

genesis was written 1000s of years after events occurred1
Genesis Was Written 1000s of Years After Events Occurred

Gen 36:31 These were the kings who reigned in Edom before any Israelite king reigned:

Gen 36 could not have been written until after Saul became king (Judges 16) around 1050 BC.

Gen 36 timeline (Jacob, Esau) occurs around 1720 BC according to the bible, over 600 years prior to any Israelite king.

This means Genesis 36 could not have been written until at least 1050 BC. This is 2850 years after the creation in 4000 BC.

genealogy of jesus
Genealogy of Jesus

Matthew 1: 16and Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, and Mary was the mother of Jesus who is called the Messiah. 17 Thus there were fourteen generations in all from Abraham to David, fourteen from David to the exile to Babylon, and fourteen from the exile to the Messiah.

Luke 3: 23Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry. He was the son, so it was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli,

genealogy of jesus1
Genealogy of Jesus
  • The genealogies from David to Joseph are completely different. Rationalizations include:
  • Luke’s genealogy is really that of Mary (most common);
  • One is kingly & one is priestly;
  • One is blood (Mary) & one is legal (Joseph)
  • “son of David” could mean descendant of David.
  • None of these explanations are in the scripture, and the later is contradicted by Matthew 1:17 which specifies 28 generations from David to Jesus.
  • For an unbelievably convoluted example of reconciling this contradiction, go to Answers In Genesis at
genealogy of jesus2
Genealogy of Jesus

Genealogies from David to Joseph as shown in The Bible Comically Illustrated from the 1888.

when was jesus born
When Was Jesus Born

Matthew 2:1 After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod,

Luke 2:1 In those days Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a censusshould be taken of the entire Roman world. 2 (This was the first census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria.)

Herod died in 4 BCE. Quirinius was not governor until 6 CE. It is not possible that Jesus was born during the reigns of both Herod and Quirinius.

The real Census of Quirinius was the enrollment of the provinces of Syria and Judea for tax purposes. Censuses ordered by Augustus covered Roman citizens only, & no Roman census required people to return to the land of long dead ancestors. Joseph, a resident of Galilee, would not have been covered by a census in Judea.

where did mary joseph travel
Where Did Mary & Joseph Travel
  • In Matthew, Jesus is born in Bethlehem, they flee immediately to Egypt, and upon their return from Egypt they travel directly to Nazareth in Galilee to avoidthe son of Herod in Judea.
  • In Luke, Mary and Joseph start in Nazareth, travel to Bethlehem for a census, go to Jerusalem for presentation in the temple, and then return immediately to their home town of Nazareth.
  • Apologists combine all the details of these stories into a super gospel to try to explain the contradictions. However, the descriptions of the travels after Bethlehem (one going immediately to Jerusalem then to Nazareth, the other going to Egypt then Nazareth) can not be reconciled.
resurrection problems
Resurrection Problems
  • Mark 16: 9 When Jesus rose early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene,out of whom he had driven seven demons.Matthew 28: 8 So the women hurried away from the tomb, afraid yet filled with joy, and ran to tell his disciples. 9 Suddenly Jesus met them. “Greetings,” he said. Luke 24: 13 Now that same day two of them [only one is named, Cleopas] were going to a village called Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem. …15As they talked and discussed these things with each other, Jesus himself came up and walked along with them; 16 but they were kept from recognizing him.John 20: 11 Now Mary stood outside the tomb crying… 14 At this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing there, but she did not realize that it was Jesus.
resurrection problems1
Resurrection Problems
  • What time did the women visit the tomb?
  • Matthew: "as it began to dawn" (28:1)
  • Mark: "very early in the morning . . . at the rising of the sun" (16:2, KJV); "when the sun had risen" (NRSV); "just after sunrise" (NIV)
  • Luke: "very early in the morning" (24:1, KJV) "at early dawn" (NRSV)
  • John: "when it was yet dark" (20:1)
resurrection problems2
Resurrection Problems
  • Who were the women?
  • Matthew: Mary Magdalene and the other Mary (28:1)
  • Mark: Mary Magdalene, the mother of James, and Salome (16:1)
  • Luke: Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and other women (24:10)
  • John: Mary Magdalene (20:1)
resurrection problems3
Resurrection Problems
  • What was their purpose?
  • Matthew: to see the tomb (28:1)
  • Mark: had already seen the tomb (15:47), brought spices (16:1)
  • Luke: had already seen the tomb (23:55), brought spices (24:1)
  • John: the body had already been spiced before they arrived (19:39,40)
resurrection problems4
Resurrection Problems
  • Was the tomb open when they arrived?
  • Matthew: No (28:2)
  • Mark: Yes (16:4)
  • Luke: Yes (24:2)
  • John: Yes (20:1)
resurrection problems5
Resurrection Problems
  • Who was at the tomb when they arrived?
  • Matthew: One angel (28:2-7)
  • Mark: One young man (16:5)
  • Luke: Two men (24:4)
  • John: Two angels (20:12)
resurrection problems6
Resurrection Problems
  • Where were these messengers situated?
  • Matthew: Angel sitting on the stone (28:2)
  • Mark: Young man sitting inside, on the right (16:5)
  • Luke: Two men standing inside (24:4)
  • John: Two angels sitting on each end of the bed (20:12)
resurrection problems7
Resurrection Problems
  • What did the messenger(s) say?
  • Matthew: "Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. He is not here for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead: and, behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you." (28:5-7)
  • Mark: "Be not afrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you." (16:6-7)
  • Luke: "Why seek ye the living among the dead? He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee, Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again." (24:5-7)
  • John: "Woman, why weepest thou?" (20:13)
resurrection problems8
Resurrection Problems
  • Did the women tell what happened?
  • Matthew: Yes (28:8)
  • Mark: No. "Neither said they any thing to any man." (16:8)
  • Luke: Yes. "And they returned from the tomb and told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest." (24:9, 22-24)
  • John: Yes (20:18)
resurrection problems9
Resurrection Problems
  • When Mary returned from the tomb, did she know Jesus had been resurrected?
  • Matthew: Yes (28:7-8)
  • Mark: Yes (16:10,11)
  • Luke: Yes (24:6-9,23)
  • John: No (20:2)
resurrection problems10
Resurrection Problems
  • When did Mary first see Jesus?
  • Matthew: Before she returned to the disciples (28:9)
  • Mark: Before she returned to the disciples (16:9,10)
  • John: After she returned to the disciples (20:2,14)
resurrection problems11
Resurrection Problems
  • Could Jesus be touched after the resurrection?
  • Matthew: Yes (28:9)
  • John: No (20:17), Yes (20:27)
resurrection problems12
Resurrection Problems
  • After the women, to whom did Jesus first appear?
  • Matthew: Eleven disciples (28:16)
  • Mark: Two disciples in the country, later to eleven (16:12,14)
  • Luke: Two disciples in Emmaus, later to eleven (24:13,36)
  • John: Ten disciples (Judas and Thomas were absent) (20:19, 24)
  • Paul: First to Cephas (Peter), then to the twelve. (Twelve? Judas was dead). (I Corinthians 15:5)
resurrection problems13
Resurrection Problems
  • Where did Jesus first appear to the disciples?
  • Matthew: On a mountain in Galilee (60-100 miles away) (28:16-17)
  • Mark: To two in the country, to eleven "as they sat at meat" (16:12,14)
  • Luke: In Emmaus (about seven miles away) at evening, to the rest in a room in Jerusalem later that night. (24:31, 36)
  • John: In a room, at evening (20:19)
resurrection problems14
Resurrection Problems
  • Did the disciples believe the two men?
  • Mark: No (16:13)
  • Luke: Yes (24:34--it is the group speaking here, not the two)
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Resurrection Problems
  • What happened at the appearance?
  • Matthew: Disciples worshipped, some doubted, "Go preach." (28:17-20)
  • Mark: Jesus reprimanded them, said "Go preach" (16:14-19)
  • Luke: Christ incognito, vanishing act, materialized out of thin air, reprimand, supper (24:13-51)
  • John: Magically appears in locked room, disciples happy, Jesus blesses them, no reprimand (20:19-23)
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Resurrection Problems
  • Did Jesus stay on earth for a while?
  • Mark: No (16:19) Compare 16:14 with John 20:19 to show that this was all done on Sunday
  • Luke: No (24:50-52) It all happened on Sunday
  • John: Yes, at least eight days (20:26, 21:1-22)
  • Acts: Yes, at least forty days (1:3)
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Resurrection Problems
  • Where did the ascension take place?
  • Matthew: No ascension. Book ends on mountain in Galilee
  • Mark: In or near Jerusalem, after supper (16:19)
  • Luke: In Bethany, very close to Jerusalem, after supper (24:50-51)
  • John: No ascension
  • Paul: No ascension
  • Acts: Ascended from Mount of Olives (1:9-12)
books used in t his study
Books Used In This Study
  • Lost Christianities, Bart Ehrman
  • Misquoting Jesus, Bart Ehrman
  • Jesus Interrupted, Bart Ehrman
  •, Richard Carrier
  • Black and White pictures from Ehrman with permission
  • Other images from Wikipedia and other public websites
  • Best image of tree of Christian sects from Concordia University website.
  • Map of early Christian sects from University of California.