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Lab Final Monday 6:30 PM. Optional Lecture Exam 4 Monday 6:00 PM scantron. Today: Human Evolution Darwin’s Finches Survivor Game Fossil Lab and Review. Class of 2011. CONGRATULATIONS GRADUATES!. Primate and Human Evolution. Who are we?. What is the human genealogy ?

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Lab Final Monday 6:30 PM

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lab final monday 6 30 pm

Lab Final Monday 6:30 PM

Optional Lecture Exam 4Monday 6:00 PM




  • Human EvolutionDarwin’s Finches Survivor Game
  • Fossil Lab and Review
class of 2011
Class of 2011
who are we
Who are we?
  • What is the human genealogy?
  • Who is the closest genetic relative?
  • Why are we different? When did we diverge?
  • What makes us human?
  • Are we still evolving?
  • But first, how was the stage set for humans?
our family goes back farther than we thought
Our family goes back farther than we thought
  • Sahelan-thropustchadensis,
    • the oldest known hominid
    • nearly 7 million years old,
    • discovered in 2002 in Chad
    • “Tormai” – Hope of Life
humans and chimpanzees diverged
Humans and Chimpanzees Diverged
  • human-chimpanzee stock separated
    • from ancestral gorillas about 8 million years ago
humans and chimpanzees diverged1
Humans and Chimpanzees Diverged
  • human-chimpanzee stock separated
  • from ancestral gorillas ~ 8 million years agoSahelanthropus tchadensis~7 my ago
    • at or near the time
    • when humans and
    • chimpanzees diverged
oldest hominid
Oldest Hominid

Sahelanthropustchadensis -- mosaic

of primitive and advanced features

  • The small brain case and most of the teeth are chimplike
  • The nose, which is fairly flat,
    • and the prominent brow ridges
    • are features only seen, until now,
    • in the human genus Homo
continuing discoveries change our ideas
Continuing Discoveries Change Our Ideas
  • As recently as 2000,
    • the earliest fossil evidence of hominids
    • was from 4.4-million-year-old rocks in eastern Africa
  • Since then, as just noted, discoveries have pushed that age back to almost 7 million years
paleoanthropologists now think
paleoanthropologists now think
    • that human evolution is not a straight line
    • The lines branched many times
  • According to this “bushy” model

key traits evolved more than once

      • upright walking,
      • manual dexterity
      • “large” brain
    • This probably produced many evolutionary dead-ends
trends in primates
Trends in Primates
  • These include changes in the skeleton
    • and mode of locomotion,
    • an increase in brain size,
    • a shift toward smaller, fewer,
    • and less specialized teeth,
trends in primates1
Trends in Primates
    • the evolution of stereoscopic vision
    • and a grasping hand with opposable thumb
  • Not all these trends took place in every primate group,
    • nor did they evolve at the same rate in each group
classification of primates
Classification of Primates
  • The prosimians, or lower primates,
  • while the anthropoids, or higher primates,
    • include monkeys, apes, and humans
  • LowerTarsiers are prosimian primates
anthropoid superfamilies
Anthropoid Superfamilies
  • Anthropoids are divided into three superfamilies
    • Old World monkeys,
    • New World monkeys,
    • and hominoids
  • Chimpanzees
one of the earliest anthropoids
One of the Earliest Anthropoids
  • Skull of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis,
  • one of the earliest known anthropoids
  • evolved in Africa,
  • The hominids (family Hominidae)
    • the primate family that includes present-day humans
    • and their extinct ancestors
    • have a fossil record extending back
    • to almost 7 million years

Hominids are bipedal;

    • that is, they have an upright posture,
    • which is indicated by several modifications in their skeleton
comparison of locomotion
Comparison of Locomotion
  • Comparison between quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion
    • in gorillas and humans
  • In gorillas the ischium bone is long
    • and the entire pelvis is tilted toward the horizontal
comparison of locomotion1
Comparison of Locomotion
  • In humans the ischium bone is much shorter
  • and the pelvis is vertical
  • Comparison between quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion
    • in gorillas and humans
larger reorganized brain
Larger Reorganized Brain
  • hominids show a trend
    • toward a large and internally reorganized brain
larger reorganized brain1
Larger Reorganized Brain
  • a present-day human
other distinguishing features
Other Distinguishing Features
  • Other features that distinguish hominids
    • a reduced face
    • and reduced canine teeth,
    • omnivorous feeding,
    • increased manual dexterity,
    • and the use of sophisticated tools
response to climatic changes
Response to Climatic Changes?
  • Many anthropologists think
    • these hominid features evolved in response
    • to major climatic changes
    • during the Miocene into the Pliocene
  • During this time, vast savannas
    • replaced the African tropical rain forests
    • where the lower primates
    • had been so abundant
  • Australopithecine is a collective term
    • for all members of the genus Australopithecus
  • Currently, five species are recognized:
    • A. anamensis,
    • A. afarensis,
    • A. africanus,
    • A. robustus,
    • and A. boisei
australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus afarensis
  • Australopithecus afarensis,
    • which lived 3.9–3.0 million years ago,
    • was fully bipedal
    • and exhibited great variability in size and weight
  • Members of this species ranged
    • from just over 1 m to about 1.5 m tall
    • and weighed between 29 and 45 kg
  • This recon-struction
  • illustrates how adaptations in
  • Lucy’s hip, leg and foot
  • allowed a fully bipedal
  • means of locomotion
  • A reconstruction of Lucy’s skeleton
    • by Owen Lovejoy
      • and his students at Kent State University, Ohio
  • Lucy is an ~ 3.5-million-year-old
    • Australopithecusafarensis individual
      • whose fossil remains were discovered by Donald Johanson
hominid footprints
Hominid Footprints
  • Preserved in volcanic ash at Laetoli, Tanzania
    • Discovered in 1978 by Mary Leakey,
    • these footprints proved hominids
    • were bipedal walkers at least 3.5 million years ago
    • The footprints of two adults and possibly those of a child
    • are clearly visible in this photograph
hominid footprints1
Hominid Footprints
  • Most scientists think the footprints
    • were made by Australopithecus afarensis
    • whose fossils are found at Laetoli
brain size of a afarensis
Brain Size of A. afarensis
  • A. afarensis had a brain size of 380–450 cubic centimeters (cc),
    • larger than the 300–400 cc
    • of a chimpanzee
    • but much smaller than that of present-day humans (1350 cc average)
landscape with a afarensis
Landscape with A. afarensis
  • Re-creation of a Pliocene landscape
    • showing members of
    • Australo-pithecusafarensis
    • gathering and eating
    • various fruits and seeds
skull of a africanus
Skull of A. africanus
  • A reconstruction of the skull
    • of Australopithecus africanus
  • This skull,
    • known as that of the Taung Child,
      • was discovered by Raymond Dart in South Africa in 1924
    • and marks the beginning of modern paleoanthropology
the human lineage
The Human Lineage
  • The earliest member of our own genus Homo
    • is Homo habilis,
    • which lived 2.5-1.6 million years ago
    • and coexisted with A. africanus
    • for about 200,000 years
characteristics of homo habilis
Characteristics of Homo habilis
  • H. habilis had a larger brain (700 cc average)
    • than its australopithecine ancestors,
    • but smaller teeth
  • It was about 1.2-1.3 m tall
    • and only weighed 32-37 kg
homo erectus
Homo Erectus
    • Homo erectus was a widely distributed species,
    • having migrated from Africa during the Pleistocene
  • Specimens have been found
    • not only in Africa
    • but also in Europe, India, China ("Peking Man"),
    • and Indonesia ("Java Man")
    • Its brain size of 800-1300 cc
h erectus was a tool maker
H. erectus Was a Tool Maker
  • The archaeological record indicates
    • that H. erectus was a tool maker
  • Furthermore, some sites show evidence
    • that its members used fire and lived in caves,
    • an advantage for those living
    • in more northerly climates
homo erectus using tools
Homo erectus Using Tools
  • Re-creation of a Pleistocene setting in Europe
    • in which members of Homo erectus are
    • using fire and stone tools
the out of africa view
The "Out of Africa" View
  • Currently, a heated debate surrounds the transition
    • from H. erectus to our own species, Homo sapiens
    • Paleoanthropologists are split into two camps
  • On the one side are those who support
    • the "out of Africa" view
  • According to this camp, early modern humans
    • evolved from a single woman in Africa,
    • whose offspring then migrated from Africa,
      • perhaps as recently as 100,000 years ago
    • and populated Europe and Asia,
    • driving the earlier hominid populations to extinction
the multiregional view
The "Multiregional" View
  • established separate populations throughout Eurasia
  • Occasional contact and interbreeding
    • between these populations enabled our species to maintain its overall cohesiveness,
    • while still preserving the regional differences
    • in people we see today
homo sapiens evolved from h erectus
Homo sapiens Evolved From H. erectus
  • Regardless of which theory turns out to be correct,
    • our species, H. sapiens
    • most certainly evolved from H. erectus
  • Perhaps the most famous of all fossil humans are the Neanderthals,
    • who inhabited Europe and the Near East
    • from about 200,000 to 30,000 years ago
  • Some paleoanthropologists regard the Neanderthals
    • as a variety or subspecies of our own species (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis),
    • whereas others regard them as a separate species (Homo neanderthalensis)
neanderthal skull
Neanderthal Skull
  • Reconstructed Neanderthal skull
  • The Neanderthals were characterized
  • by prominent heavy brow ridges and week chin
burial ceremony in a cave
Burial Ceremony in a Cave
  • Archaeological evidence indicates
    • Neanderthals lived in caves
    • and participated in ritual burials
    • as depicted in this painting of a burial ceremony
    • such as occurred approximately 60,000 years ago
    • at Shanidar Cave, Iraq
cro magnons
  • About 30,000 years ago,
    • humans closely resembling modern Europeans
    • moved into the region inhabited
    • by the Neanderthals and completely replaced them
  • Cro-Magnons, the name given to
    • the successors of the Neanderthals in France,
    • lived from about 35,000 to 10,000 years ago;
    • during this period the development of art and technology
    • far exceeded anything the world had seen before
painting from a cave in france
Painting From a Cave in France
  • Cro-Magnons were very skilled cave painters
    • Painting of a horse
    • from the cave of Niaux, France
cro magnon camp
Cro-Magnon Camp
  • Re-creation of a Cro-Magnon camp in Europe
what makes us human
What makes us Human?
  • Ability to walk upright
    • But hominids did that
      • Diversity of hand grips
    • Ability to think abstractly
      • Early toolmakers did that
      • Plan?
      • Civiliziations?
      • Technologoy?

List three distinctions thatYOU believe set humans apart and state whether this is clearly advantageous to our lineage.

closet genetic relative
Closet genetic relative?
  • How have chimps evolved compared to humans?
  • How does altruistic tendencies set humans apart?