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Virginia Youth Insights. Conducted for Work, Inc. Prepared by: Dana Markow, Ph.D., Senior Research Manager Marc Scheer, Research Associate December 4, 2001 Field Dates: November 1 – 11, 2001. J15162. Table of Contents. To better understand Virginia’s tweens and teens in terms of their:

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virginia youth insights

Virginia Youth Insights

Conducted for

Work, Inc.

Prepared by:

Dana Markow, Ph.D., Senior Research Manager

Marc Scheer, Research Associate

December 4, 2001

Field Dates:

November 1 – 11, 2001

J15162

purpose of the study
To better understand Virginia’s tweens and teens in terms of their:

Traditional media and online activities;

Attitudes about self-image and health;

Social connections and networks; and

Attitudes and experiences related to smoking.

To test believability and possible impact of anti-smoking messages.

To understand Virginia youth in the context of the nation’s youth.

Purpose of the Study
methodology
Methodology
  • The questionnaire was fielded online and averaged about 15 minutes per respondent.
  • Sample was drawn randomly from a targeted list obtained from Survey Sampling Inc. of households with children aged 10 - 17 in Virginia.
  • 623 qualified respondents completed the interview.
  • Interviews were conducted November 1-11, 2001.
  • Data were weighted by key demographic variables (age, sex, race/ethnicity, region) to be representative of 10-17 year olds in Virginia.
executive summary1
Executive Summary

Overview

In many ways, Virginia youth reflect the tweens and teens in the nation as a whole. Tweens and teens multitask – engaging in many media activities at the same time. Most are using the Internet, and instant messaging (IM) is increasingly popular. This report examines the attitudes and activities of Virginia tweens (10 – 12 year olds) and teens (13 – 17 year olds), particularly focusing on issues to help guide the development of an anti-smoking campaign. Such issues include an understanding of traditional and online media use, social connections and networks, attitudes about health and well-being, smoking attitudes and behaviors, and an examination of how current or potential smokers differ from those who do not plan to smoke.

Health Attitudes

Fully half of Virginia tweens and teens regard being physically fit and getting enough sleep as very important. The importance placed on getting enough sleep is less among older teens. Girls value getting enough sleep and eating healthy foods more than do boys.

executive summary2
Executive Summary

Smoking Experiences and Attitudes

  • According to the Centers for Disease Control’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1999), 70% of high school students have tried cigarette smoking. Furthermore, frequent cigarette use among high school students has been increasing since 1991, from 12.7% to 16.8% in 1999. A recent (October, 2001) Gallup Youth Survey of 13 – 17 year olds found that 12% smoked cigarettes in the past week and that the average starting age for smoking was 12.4 years. Given the young starting age for smoking, the tween segment is an important population to reach.
  • Measures of smoking behavior and experiences vary greatly depending on the questions asked and the methodology used. The current study revealed lower levels of teen smokers in Virginia. However, this study was conducted by telephone, with many parents listening to the interview. In addition, teens were asked about whether they described themselves as “smokers” or not. The recent Roper report prepared for Work, Inc. found that smoking was less than a daily habit for most Virginia youth. Therefore, some youth who do smoke cigarettes on occasion, may not have identified themselves as smokers. For the purposes of additional analyses in the current study, “current/potential smokers” are defined as those who currently smoke, have smoked in the past or would consider smoking in the future. “Rejectors” are those teens who say they will never smoke.
executive summary3
Executive Summary
  • As also revealed in national studies, youth in Virginia who live with a smoker are more likely to smoke or consider smoking. One-quarter of Virginia tweens and teens report that they live with someone who smokes. Half of older teens (15 – 17 year olds) have a close friend that smokes. On average, older teens have 2 close friends who smoke. In contrast, only one in eleven tweens (10 – 12 year olds) have a close friend who smokes. This finding again emphasizes the critical juncture that the tween years represent in terms of decision-making and experiences regarding smoking.
  • The majority of tweens and teens believe that it is very difficult for someone who smokes a few cigarettes a day to quit smoking. However, older teens are less likely to think this to be a difficult task. Furthermore, teens who smoke or would consider smoking are also less likely to believe it is very difficult to quit, although a plurality (44%) does believe it would be very difficult.
  • According to a plurality of tweens and teens, smoking among young people is increasing. This finding is especially common among teens; more than half believe that smoking is increasing among people their age.
executive summary4
Executive Summary

Traditional and Online Media Use

  • Any media messages directed at tweens and teens must compete for their attention. Today’s youth, in Virginia and the nation as a whole, are media multi-taskers. When tweens and teens watch TV or listen to the radio, they are usually doing something else – most likely talking on the phone or doing homework. While watching TV, three in ten 10 – 17 year olds are involved in other media activities such as reading a magazine, listening to the radio or surfing the web. While listening to the radio, four in ten 10 - 17 year olds are reading a magazine or surfing the web.
  • These findings emphasize the competition for tweens’ and teens’ attention and that media messages are not received in isolation. But this multitasking behavior also represents opportunities to layer messages across media.
  • Virginia tweens and teens are online – particularly in the northern and Tidewater regions of the state. Overall, Virginia youth appear to be slightly more connected than youth nationwide. Most online tweens and teens in Virginia and the nation are visiting music, gaming and search engine websites. Online youth in Virginia cite the information they receive as what they like most about their favorite sites, although games, pictures and music are also important.
  • Only a small minority of tweens and teens overall visit health websites, and 15 – 17 year olds account for the majority of this activity.
  • Most Virginia tweens and teens have not spent time in chat rooms in the previous week. As in the nation as a whole, instant messaging is popular among Virginia youth – six in ten have IM’d someone in the past week.
executive summary5
Executive Summary

Social Connections

  • On any given day, tweens and teens connect with many different people in many different ways. On average, they talk on the phone with 3 different people, they send an email to one person and receive emails from 3 people, and they instant message with 2 people. Three in ten Virginia youth connect in these ways with 11 or more people a day. On average, tweens and teens will tell 6 people about a new thing they like. Boys and older teens tell more people when they discover something they like. Tweens’ and teens’ connectedness and their willingness to discuss new finds with others has important implications for any viral messaging campaign.

Sensation Seeking

  • Many teenagers value such sensation seeking attitudes as having varied experiences and having creative friends, even if they are wild. Half of tweens and teens like new experiences and even breaking the rules, as well as doing scary things. The enjoyment of sensation seeking activities increases slightly with age, particularly when it comes to breaking the rules.
executive summary6
Executive Summary

Self-Images

  • For tweens and teens, trustworthiness is a key part of their self-image, seconded by being fun to be around. Four in ten tweens and teens believe it is very important that they don’t care what other people think about them --- only two in ten say this is not at all important.
  • Boys are more likely than girls to value being good at sports and easily getting a romantic partner. Girls are more likely than boys to value being trustworthy. The value placed on being a leader, being independent and being fun to be around all increase with age.

Images of Smokers and Non-Smokers

  • Tweens and teens consider the dominant characteristics of a smoker to be not caring what others think and being thin. The image of non-smokers is that they are good at sports, trustworthy, fun and leaders.
executive summary7
Executive Summary

Current/Potential Teen Smokers vs. Rejectors

  • Current/potential teen smokers differ from those teens who reject smoking in several important ways. Current/potential teen smokers are more likely to:
      • Live in a household with a smoker;
      • Watch TV and talk on the phone at the same time;
      • Listen to the radio and talk on the phone at the same time;
      • Be highly connected to others by phone, email or IM;
      • Enjoy doing scary things;
      • Enjoy new and exciting experiences, even if it involves breaking rules;
      • Get bored seeing the same people each day;
      • View a smoker as someone who knows the latest trends, looks like a movie star, is good at sports and is fun to be around.
  • They are less likely to believe it is very difficult to quit smoking.
executive summary8
Executive Summary

Test Messages

  • Tweens and teens are three times as likely to view the “empowerment” messages of “getting serious about the future” and “the Truth campaign tells only half the truth” as very believable, compared to the “socially unacceptable” message of “non-smokers are not weird”. Tweens and teens are also more likely to report that the “empowerment” messages would make them stop and think a lot about their decision to smoke.

A Note About YouthPulseSM

Harris Interactive YouthPulseSM is a large-scale, national study of youth lifestyles and attitudes. Respondents are youth aged 8 - 24 years. The study is conducted online, twice a year -- in January and July. Data referred to in this report are based on the July, 2001 wave.

physical fitness and sleep are highly valued by half of tweens and teens
Physical Fitness and Sleep Are Highly Valued by Half of Tweens and Teens

Is it very important, somewhat important or not at all important that you are a person who…?

% “Very Important”

Q716 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

tweens value healthy eating more than teens sleep less valued among older teens
Tweens Value Healthy Eating More Than Teens; Sleep Less Valued Among Older Teens

Is it very important, somewhat important or not at all important that you are a person who…?

% “Very Important”

Q716 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

boys are twice as likely as girls to value physical strength girls emphasize healthy foods
Boys Are Twice As Likely As Girls to Value Physical Strength; Girls Emphasize Healthy Foods

Is it very important, somewhat important or not at all important that you are a person who…?

% “Very Important”

Q716 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

older teens less likely to reject smoking
Older Teens Less Likely to Reject Smoking

Teen Smoking Status

Current/

Potential

Rejectors

(N=413) (N=222) (N=191) (N=201) (N=212)

Age

Gender

Q750 BASE: Respondents aged 13-17 years old (n=413)

one quarter of virginia tweens and teens lives with a smoker
One-quarter of Virginia Tweens and Teens Lives With A Smoker

Not including yourself, does anyone who lives in your home smoke cigarettes?

% “Yes”

(N= 623) (N=332) (N=291) (N=210) (N=201) (N=212)

Age

Gender

Q745 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

slide21
Smoking More Common in Homes Where Mother Has Only High School Degree; Current/Potential Teen Smokers Twice As Likely to Live With Smoker

Not including yourself, does anyone who lives in your home smoke cigarettes?

% “Yes”

(N=623) (N=120) (N=75) (N=385) (N=103) (N=310)

Mother’s Education

Teen Smoking Status

Q745 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

15 17 year olds are six times as likely as 10 12 year olds to have friends who smoke
15-17 Year Olds Are Six Times As Likely As 10-12 Year Olds to Have Friends Who Smoke

How many of your close friends smoke cigarettes?

Q740 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

slide23
Older Teens and Current/Potential Smokers Are Least Likely to Think Quitting Smoking Is Very Difficult

How difficult do you think it is for someone who smokes a few cigarettes a day to quit smoking?

(N=623) (N=210) (N=201) (N=212) (N=103) (N310)

Smoking Status

Age

Q730 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

plurality of tweens and teens report that smoking among young people is increasing
Plurality of Tweens and Teens Report That Smoking Among Young People Is Increasing

Do you think smoking among people your age is increasing, deceasing or staying about the same?

(N=623) (N=210) (N=201) (N=212)

Age

Q725 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

nationwide multitasking media use is common among tweens and teens
Nationwide, Multitasking Media Use Is Common Among Tweens and Teens

Youth Pulse SM: National Findings

% Reporting doing something else at the same time

Q2140/2175/2160/2260/2320/2360 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

most tweens and teens talk on the phone or do homework while watching television
Most Tweens and Teens Talk on the Phone or Do Homework While Watching Television

On a typical day, when you WATCH TV, what do you do at the SAME TIME? When you watch TV, do you...?

92% Multitask (Net)

Q310 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

high degree of multi tasking while watching television slightly higher among teens than tweens
High Degree of Multi-Tasking While Watching Television, Slightly Higher Among Teens Than Tweens

On a typical day, when you WATCH TV, what do you do at the SAME TIME? When you watch TV, do you...?

% Multitask

(N=623) (N=332) (N=291) (N=210) (N=201) (N=212)

Gender

Age

Q310 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

while watching tv girls more likely than boys to talk on phone and listen to radio
While Watching TV, Girls More Likely Than Boys to Talk on Phone and Listen to Radio

On a typical day, when you WATCH TV, what do you do at the SAME TIME?

When you watch TV, do you...?

Q310 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

teens more likely than tweens to watch tv and talk on the phone
Teens More Likely Than Tweens to Watch TV and Talk on the Phone

On a typical day, when you WATCH TV, what do you do at the SAME TIME?

When you watch TV, do you...?

Q310 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

current potential teen smokers more likely than rejectors to talk on phone while watching tv
Current/Potential Teen Smokers More Likely Than Rejectors to Talk on Phone While Watching TV

On a typical day, when you WATCH TV, what do you do at the SAME TIME?

When you watch TV, do you...?

Q310 BASE: All respondents (n=623), Current/Potential (n=103), Rejectors (n=310)

most tweens and teens do homework and talk on the phone while listening to the radio
Most Tweens and Teens Do Homework and Talk on the Phone While Listening to the Radio

On a typical day, when you LISTEN TO THE RADIO, what do you do at the SAME TIME?

When you listen to the radio, do you...?

90% Multitask (Net)

Q325 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

multitasking while listening to radio is high overall but higher among girls

(N=623) (N=332) (N=291) (N=210) (N=201) (N=212)

Age

Gender

Multitasking While Listening to Radio is High Overall, but Higher Among Girls

On a typical day, when you listen to the radio, what do you do at the SAME TIME?

When you listen to the radio, do you...?

(% of respondents indicating that they multitask while listening to the radio)

Q325 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

while listening to the radio more girls than boys do homework and talk on the phone
While Listening to the Radio, More Girls Than Boys Do Homework and Talk on the Phone

On a typical day, when you listen to the radio, what do you do at the SAME TIME?

When you listen to the radio, do you...?

Q325 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

while listening to the radio tweens less likely to do homework than teens
While Listening to the Radio, Tweens Less Likely to Do Homework Than Teens

On a typical day, when you listen to the radio, what do you do at the SAME TIME?

When you listen to the radio, do you...?

Q325 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

slide36
While Listening to Radio, Current/Potential Teen Smokers more Likely Than Rejectors to Talk On Phone, Less Likely to Read Magazines

On a typical day, when you listen to the radio, what do you do at the SAME TIME?

When you listen to the radio, do you...?

Q325 BASE: All respondents (n=623), Current/Potential (n=103), Rejectors (n=310)

three quarters of virginia tweens and teens have used internet in past week
Three-quarters of Virginia Tweens and Teens Have Used Internet in Past Week

Q405 BASE: All Respondents (n=623)

virginia s tweens and young teens more likely than those nationwide to be online
Virginia’s Tweens and Young Teens More Likely Than Those Nationwide to Be Online

% Accessing the Internet at least once in past month

Youth Pulse SM: National Findings

for online tweens and teens most popular websites include music games search engines
For Online Tweens and Teens, Most Popular Websites Include: Music, Games, Search Engines

LAST WEEK,which types of websites did you visit?

Q460 BASE: Those who went on the Internet last week (n=503)

search engines music and games also top teens list nationwide
Search Engines, Music and Games Also Top Teens’ List Nationwide

Youth Pulse SM: National Findings

Last week, which types of sites did you visit?

(13-18 Year Olds)

Q923/924 BASE: Respondents aged 13-18 years old

health sites are most popular among older online teens
Health Sites Are Most Popular Among Older Online Teens

LAST WEEK, which types of websites did you visit?

% Health Sites

(N=503) (N=139) (N=174) (N=190)

Q460 BASE: Those who went on the Internet last week (n=503)

online tweens and teens like information games pictures and music on websites
Online Tweens and Teens Like Information, Games, Pictures and Music on Websites

What do you like MOST about your favorite websites?

Q470 BASE: Those who went on the Internet last week (n=503)

last week how many hours did you spend in chat rooms

Small Minority of Online Tweens and Teens Visit Chat Rooms

Last week, how many HOURS did you spend in chat rooms?

1 Hour or More (Net) 14%

Q425 BASE: Those who went on the Internet last week (n=503)

entertainment sports and hobbies are most popular chat topics
Entertainment, Sports, and Hobbies Are Most Popular Chat Topics

What were the topics of the chat rooms that you visited in the last week?

Q430 BASE: Those who chatted on the Internet last week (n=59)

majority of online tweens and teens use instant messaging
Majority of Online Tweens and Teens Use Instant Messaging

Last week, how many instant messaging or IM sessions did you have?

Mean = 10.1 sessions

1 or more

(Net)

63%

Q435 BASE: Those who went on the Internet last week (n=503)

nationwide im increases in popularity during teen years
Nationwide, IM Increases In Popularity During Teen Years

Youth Pulse SM: National Findings

Q900 BASE

number of phone connections increases with age
Number of Phone Connections Increases With Age

YESTERDAY, how many DIFFERENT people did you

talk on the telephone with?

Q511_1 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

one third of tweens and teens sent an email the previous day but
One-third of Tweens and Teens Sent an Email the Previous Day, But…

YESTERDAY, how many DIFFERENT people did you

send an email to?

Q511_2 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

nearly half had received an email
Nearly Half Had Received An Email

YESTERDAY, how many DIFFERENT people did you

get an email from?

Q511_4 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

as in virginia tweens and teens across the nation receive more e mails than they send
As In Virginia, Tweens and Teens Across the Nation Receive More E-mails Than They Send

Average number of e-mails sent/received per day

Youth Pulse SM: National Findings

Q885/890 BASE

nearly half of teens instant messaged im the previous day more than twice as many as tweens
Nearly Half of Teens Instant Messaged (IM) the Previous Day – More Than Twice As Many As Tweens

YESTERDAY, how many DIFFERENT people did you

send an Instant Message to?

Q511_3 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

connectedness increases markedly from tween to teen years
Connectedness Increases Markedly From Tween to Teen Years

% Telephoning, Emailing or Instant Messaging (IM) more than 10 different people a day

(N=623) (N=210) (N=201) (N=212)

Age

Q510 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

current potential teen smokers are more likely than rejectors to be highly connected
Current/Potential Teen Smokers Are More Likely Than Rejectors to Be Highly Connected

% Telephoning, Emailing or Instant Messaging (IM) more than 10 different people a day

(N=332) (N=291) (N=103) (N=310)

Gender

Teen Smoking Status

Q510 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

boys and older teens tell more people about new things they like
Boys and Older Teens Tell More People About New Things They Like

The last time you found a new thing you really liked, how many other people did you tell about it?

Q515 Base: All respondents (n=623)

most tweens and teens enjoy maximizing experiences and having artistic friends
Most Tweens and Teens Enjoy Maximizing Experiences and Having Artistic Friends

% “Yes”

Q606 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

boys have higher affinity than girls for driving motorcycles and acquiring new experiences
Boys Have Higher Affinity Than Girls For Driving Motorcycles and Acquiring New Experiences

% “Yes”

Q606 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

older teens enjoy new experiences and risk taking more than younger kids
Older Teens Enjoy New Experiences and Risk-Taking More Than Younger Kids

% “Yes”

Q606 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

slide60
Central Virginia Tweens and Teens Most Likely to Want to Drive Motorcycle; Least Likely to Want Varied Experiences

% “Yes”

Q606 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

slide61
Current/Potential Teen Smokers Like to Do Scary Things and Have New Experiences – Even if They Break Rules

% “Yes”

Q606 BASE: All respondents (n=623), Current/Potential (n=103), Rejectors (n=310)

most tweens and teens want to be trustworthy and fun
Most Tweens and Teens Want to Be Trustworthy and Fun

Is it very important, somewhat important or not at all important that you are a person who…?

% “Very Important”

Q611 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

most tweens and teens do not value looking like a movie star
Most Tweens and Teens Do Not Value Looking Like A Movie Star

Is it very important, somewhat important or not at all important that you are a person who…?

% “Not At All Important”

Q611 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

slide65
Girls Value Trustworthiness More Than Do Boys; Boys More Likely to Value Being Good At Sports and Getting a Romantic Partner

Is it very important, somewhat important or not at all important that you are a person who…?

% “Very Important”

Q611 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

15 17 year olds value leadership and self assuredness to a greater extent than do 10 12 year olds
15-17 year-olds Value Leadership and Self-Assuredness to a Greater Extent Than Do 10-12 year-olds

Is it very important, somewhat important or not at all important that you are a person who…?

% “Very Important”

Q611 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

slide67

Northern Virginia Tweens and Teens Least Likely to Value Being A Leader; Tidewater Tweens and Teens Least Likely to Value Sports Performance

Is it very important, somewhat important or not at all important that you are a person who…?

% “Very Important”

Q611 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

teens self images do not differ by their smoking status
Teens’ Self-Images Do Not Differ By Their Smoking Status

Is it very important, somewhat important or not at all important that you are a person who…?

% “Very Important”

Q611 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

slide69
Tweens and teens report that the following describe a smoker (and not a non-smoker):

Tweens and teens report that the following describe a non-smoker (and not a smoker):

According to Tweens and Teens: Smokers Don’t Care What Others Think and Non-Smokers Are Athletic, Trustworthy, Fun and Leaders

Q736 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

slide70
Teens report that the following describe a smoker (and not a non-smoker):

Teens report that the following describe a non-smoker (and not a smoker):

Current/Potential

Rejectors

Current/Potential Teen Smokers More Likely to Say Smokers Know the Latest Trends and Look Like Movie Stars

Q736 BASE: All respondents (n=623), Current/Potential (n=103), Rejectors (n=310)

test messages

Test Messages

Statement 1: With all that’s going on in the world, it’s time to get serious about your future. Some things, like smoking, just get in the way of being ready for whatever challenges the future might bring.

(Serious About Future – Empowerment)

Statement 2: Why are there so many more people who don’t smoke than do smoke? Maybe it’s because they’re not weird. They know that smoke coming out of their noses is not normal.

(Smokers Not Normal – Socially Unacceptable)

Statement 3: The Truth campaign tells only half the truth. It’s true that tobacco companies try to get people to smoke. But the real truth is that the decision is yours, not theirs.

(The Truth Campaign – Empowerment)

slide72

Total Male Female 10-12 13-14 15-17 Current/ Rejectors

Potential

(N=623) (N-332) (N=291) (N=210) (N=201) (N=212) (N=103) (N=310)

Gender Age Teen Smoking Status

“Empowerment” Messages Three Times More Believable Than “Socially Unacceptable” Message For Girls and Boys; Tweens and Teens

% Very Believable

Serious About Future (Empowerment)

Smokers Not Normal (Socially Unacceptable)

The Truth Campaign (Empowerment)

Q771 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

empowerment messages more likely to prompt behavior change particularly among tweens

Total Male Female 10-12 13-14 15-17 Current/ Rejectors

Potential

(N=623) (N-332) (N=291) (N=210) (N=201) (N=212) (N=103) (N=310)

Gender Age Teen Smoking Status

“Empowerment” Messages More Likely To Prompt Behavior Change - Particularly Among Tweens

% Think a Lot

Serious About Future (Empowerment)

Smokers Not Normal (Socially Unacceptable)

The Truth Campaign (Empowerment)

Q771 BASE: All respondents (n=623)

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