Bio-Chemistry & Nutrition Molecules - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bio-Chemistry & Nutrition Molecules

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  1. Bio-Chemistry & Nutrition Molecules

  2. Organic Molecules Elements involved: C, H, O, N Micro Macro Foods saccharides /glucose carbs starches & sweets Fatty acids/glycerols lipids oily, greasy, fried foods Amino acids proteins meats & beans Bio-Chemistry & Nutrition Molecules • Inorganic Molecules • Elements involved: everything else • vitamins, minerals, water, carbon dioxide (CO2)

  3. Complex: starches Polysaccharides Rice Bread/cereal Grains Pasta Simple: sugars Monosaccharides Disaccharides Candy Fruit Milk White table sugar Carbohydrates • Refined • Nutrients removed • Cookies • Unrefined • Nutrients remain • fruit

  4. Carbohydrates cont. • When we eat carbs, the body has to break them down into simple sugars… • Like glucose • unrefined starches keep us full the longest, but they must be broken down • Carbs – increase blood sugar (sugar related to diabetes) • Insulin takes sugar from the blood to the cells to be broken down & used • Insulin = decrease in the amount of sugar in the blood • We should eat less candy (refined) & more grains & veggies (unrefined)

  5. Simple Sugars: Monosaccharides – get through fruits Glucose (C6H12O6) – molecular formula Galactose Fructose Disaccharides – get from sweets Sucrose (table sugar) = 1 glucose & 1 fructose Maltose = 1 glucose & 1 glucose Lactose (milk) = 1 glucose & 1 galactose Types of Sugars All the same formula, but each with a different placement of the H & OH • Complex Sugars: • Polysaccharides – 500 to many thousands of glucose molecules • Ex. Glycogen • animals • Ex. Cellulose • plants • both are long, branched chains of glucose

  6. Step to build a Glucose: • Molecular formula • C6H12O6 • Make the structural formula • Draw: Hexagon • Draw: Oxygen in upper right corner • Draw: Carbons in all other corners • Draw: H & OH, alternating on the outside (then fill in the inside) • Draw: CH2OH • Show different ways Glucose • Background info: • Covalent Bonds (sharing e-) • C - H single bond • C = O double bond • C = N triple bond • Carbon (4 bonds) • Oxygen (2 bonds) • Hydrogen (1 bond) • OH = hydroxide group

  7. Dehydration Synthesis To put (organic molecules) glucose together Take away water first & Hydrolysis (reverse of dehydration synthesis) To separate the glucoses from each other Adding water Steps: 1. Take out OH from one glucose 2. Take out H from an OH of the other glucose 3. Bond forms between atoms (C-O-C) 4. H2O forms ** always one less water molecule ** glucose C6H12O6 glucose C6H12O6 maltose C12H22O11

  8. (C-O-C) bond formation • When C-O-C bonds are broken – energy is given off • energy given off is measured as… • Calories

  9. Made up of 4 components: Glycerol + 3 fatty acids triglycerides/ + 3 H2O fat (lipids) molecules What do we use them for? Padding & insulation Source of energy (storage) – stored in the bonds Make up cell membrane (lipid bilayer) nutrient Lipids (fats)– organic molecules (macro)* made of C, H, O (H:O is 2:1)* examples – fats, oils, waxes O HO – C – CX H2X+1 *Formula to make fatty acid tails*

  10. Lipids (fats) • Where do we get them? • Oily, greasy foods (fried) • Milk, dairy • Animal fats (meat) • Small molecules • Fats, oils, waxes • Large molecules: cholesterol • Too much is harmful • Clogs blood vessels by making deposits on inner lining • Where do humans store fat? • Cheeks, neck, arms, abdomen, thighs, butt

  11. Where do we get them from? Meats, nuts, legumes (black beans & lentils), fish, beans, dairy, eggs What do we use them for? Growth, repair, maintenance Replace tissues in body (cellular level) Build muscle, enzymes, hormones Made up of 3 components: Nitrogen (amino) group (NH2) Carboxyl (organic) group (COOH) Amino Acids – 20 different types Sequence of AA’s makes one protein different from another Proteins – organic molecules (macro)* chains of amino acids*made of C, H, O, N* examples - enzymes, hormones, antibodies

  12. Proteins • Analogy • Glucoses : starch • Amino acids : proteins • Small (micro) molecules: • Amino acids (AA’s) • Large (macro) molecules: • Polypeptide – long chains of AA’s • Peptide refers to peptide bonds that form between amino acids • Where do we store them? • Found in all cells • Body fluids (blood) • “stored” in muscles