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Chapter 10 Networking With Windows. Market Leader GUI “Tools in the Box” Support. History 1985 – MS Net 1993 – NT 3.1 1995 – NT 3.51 1996 – NT 4.0 2000 – Win 2000 2003 – Server 2003 Longhorn Blackcomb. Why Microsoft. Goals.

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why microsoft
Market Leader

GUI

“Tools in the Box”

Support

History

1985 – MS Net

1993 – NT 3.1

1995 – NT 3.51

1996 – NT 4.0

2000 – Win 2000

2003 – Server 2003

Longhorn

Blackcomb

Why Microsoft
goals
Goals
  • To ensure that network resources such as files, folders, and printers are available to users
  • To secure the network so that available resources are only accessible to users who have been granted the proper permissions
windows server 2003 editions
Windows Server 2003 Editions
  • Multiple versions of Windows Server 2003 exist
  • Each version is defined to meet the need of a certain market segment
  • Versions Include:
    • Standard Edition
    • Enterprise Edition
    • Datacenter Edition
    • Web Edition
standard edition
Standard Edition
  • Designed for everyday needs of small to mediumbusinesses or as a departmental server for larger organizations
  • Provides file and print services, secure Internet connectivity, centralized management of network resources
  • Logical upgrade path for Windows 2000 Server
  • Can be used as a domain controller, member server, or standalone server
enterprise edition
Enterprise Edition
  • Generally used for medium to large businesses
  • Designed for organizations that require better performance, reliability, and availability than Standard Edition provides
  • Provides support for mission-critical applications
  • Available in both 32 and 64-bit editions
datacenter edition
Datacenter Edition
  • Designed for mission-critical applications, very large databases, and information access that requires the highest levels of availability
  • Can only be obtained from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)
web edition
Web Edition
  • Lower-cost edition
  • Designed for hosting and deploying Web services and applications
  • Meant for small to large companies or departments that develop and/or deploy Web services
  • Can only be obtained from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)
two different operating modes
Two Different Operating Modes

User Mode

OS/2 Application

Win32Application

Virtual DOSMachine (VDM)

POSIX Application

LogonProcess

Win32Subsystem

OS/2 Subsystem

POSIX Subsystem

SecuritySubsystem

Kernel Mode

Executive Services

the intel memory model

Apps

Apps

The Intel Memory Model

Kernel Mode

  • Win2K Operating System Executive Services always operate in Ring 0
  • Executive Services cannot be paged out to Virtual Memory (Hard Disk)
  • User Mode Applications run through Application Programming Interfaces (API’s) to request services from Executive Services

Executive ServicesRing 0

Ring 1

Ring 2

Ring 3

User Mode

architectural layers
Architectural Layers
  • User mode
    • Processes protected by the OS
    • No direct access to hardware
  • Kernel mode
    • Processes protected by the CPU
    • Direct access all hardware and memory
user mode
User Mode
  • Environment subsystems
    • Provides API’s for
      • CSRSS.EXE - Windows 32bit Applications
      • OS/2 – DOS 16bit Applications
      • Unix compatible Applications
  • Integral subsystems
      • Security
      • Tracking user rights and permissions
      • Login authentication
kernel mode
Kernel Mode
  • Executive
      • Manages all I/O
      • Communications between clients and servers
        • LPC – Local Procedure Call
        • RPC – Remote Procedure Call
        • VMM
  • Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)
      • Library of hardware routines
      • Makes OS portable
  • Kernel-mode drivers
      • Device drivers programs that control devices
      • WDM - Windows Driver Model
        • Support of Windows 98/ME
the fat file system
The FAT File System
  • File Allocation Table (FAT)
    • File location and Attributes
    • Two copies of the FAT are stored on the volume.
  • FAT16
    • DOS thru Windows Server 2003
  • FAT32 (VFAT)
    • Windows 95 OSR2 and above
  • You can move or copy files between FAT and NTFS volumes.
the fat16 file system
The FAT16 File System
  • Supports up to 2TB
  • Limited to 4 partitions
    • 4 primary or
    • 3 primary and 1 extended
    • Limited to 4Gb
  • Maximum file size 2GB
  • Short file names 8.3
structure fat16 disk
Structure FAT16 Disk
  • Basically the directory
  • Name
  • Attribute
  • Create data
  • Modified data
  • Starting Cluster
  • File size
fat32 vfat
FAT32 (VFAT)
  • FAT32 supports partitions larger than those handled by FAT16.
    • 2047 GB theoretical
    • Win2K+ limit 32GB
  • Maximum file size 4 GB
  • Supports long file names – 255 characters
slide25
NTFS
  • Supported by Windows NT and above
  • Partition size up to 2TB
  • Supports up 264 bytes - 16 exabytes
  • Maximum file size limited by volume size
  • Supports long file names – 255 characters
  • Compression
  • Encryption
  • Enhanced Security
  • Journaling
introduction to ntfs
Introduction to NTFS
  • Should try to format Windows 2000 partitions with NTFS
  • Guarantees the consistency of the volume by using standard transaction logging and recovery techniques
  • Supports all Windows 2000 operating system features
  • Allows you to set local permissions on files and folders that specify which groups and users have access to them
cd and dvd support
CD and DVD Support
  • CD‑ROM File System (CDFS)
    • Uppercase 32 character names
    • 8 level directory tree
  • Universal Disk Format (UDF)
    • Logical/Physical sector size same for entire volume
    • Block size should be set to logical sector size
    • Physical sector size same for all media in volume set
  • DVD support
basic vs dynamic
Basic vs Dynamic
  • Basic storage
    • Industry standard
    • Contains partitions, extended partitions, & logical drives
    • Default for new disk added to Win2k
    • Backward compatible with WinNT
  • Dynamic storage
    • Win2K feature
    • Single partition includes entire disk
    • Disk is divided into volumes
      • May span multiple physical disks
    • Can resize as needed
    • Upgrade a basic disk to a dynamic disk
windows networking concepts
Windows Networking Concepts
  • Two different security models used in Windows environments
    • Workgroup
    • Domain
  • Three roles for a Windows Server 2003 system in a network
    • Standalone server
    • Member server
    • Domain controller
workgroups
Workgroups
  • A workgroup is a logical group of computers
    • Characterized by a decentralized security and and administration model
    • Authentication provided by a local account database – Security Accounts Manager (SAM)
  • Limitations
    • Users need unique accounts on each workstation
    • Users manage their own accounts (security issues)
    • Not very scalable
workgroups cont
Workgroups (cont)
  • Peer to Peer connections emphasized
  • Each machine must have a user database
  • Machines can connect in the network without security if “Guest” Account active without password.
domains
Domains
  • Must have at least one Win2000 Server to define domain.
  • Centralized Administration of Accounts & Security
  • One Account, One Logon, One Password
  • Domain not reliant on physical factors
  • One security policy for entire domain
domains cont
Domains (cont)
  • Computers join domains, not users
  • Each computer continues to maintain it’s own database.
  • Domain Administrator automatically local admin.
differences between domains
Differences between Domains
  • Windows NT 4.0 Servers
    • Must have a “Master” computer acting as the Primary Domain Controller
    • Can have secondary computers acting as Backup Domain Controllers
    • Once Server is established as a Domain Controller, it cannot be shifted to another Domain
    • Domains are limited to 40,000 entries (i.e. Users, Groups, etc.)
differences between domains1
Differences between Domains
  • Windows 2000+ Servers
    • Domain controller(s) maintain the Active Directory data store
    • Domain controllers can shift between domains
    • Windows 2000 Domains do not have the limitation on entries that NT 4.0 Domains experience.
domains1
Domains
  • A domain is a logical group of computers
    • Characterized by centralized authentication and administration
    • Authentication provided through centralized Active Directory
    • Active Directory database can be physically distributed across domain controllers
    • Requires at least one system configured as a domain controller
member servers
Member Servers
  • A member server
    • Has an account in a domain
    • Is notconfigured as a domain controller
    • Typically used for file, print, application, and host network services
    • All 4 Windows Server 2003 Editions can be configured as member servers
windows networking concepts1
Windows Networking Concepts
  • Two different security models used in Windows environments
    • Workgroup
    • Domain
  • Three roles for a Windows Server 2003 system in a network
    • Standalone server
    • Member server
    • Domain controller
domain controllers
Domain Controllers
  • Explicitly configured to store a copy of Active Directory
  • Service user authentication requests
  • Service queries about domain objects
  • May be a dedicated server but is not required to be
windows nt
Windows NT
  • Primary Domain Controller (PDC)
    • Read/Write copy of SAM
  • Backup Domain Controller (BDC)
    • Read only replica copy of SAM
  • Trust relationships explicitly setup
    • Not transitive
nt domains
NT — Domains
  • NT uses the concept of a domain to manage global access rights within groups.
  • A domain is a group of machines running NT server that share a common security policy and user database.
  • NT provides four domain models to manage multiple domains within a single organization.
    • Single domain model, domains are isolated.
    • Master domain model, one of the domains is designated the master domain.
    • Multiple master domain model, there is more than one master domain, and they all trust each other.
    • Multiple trust model, there is no master domain. All domains manage their own users, but they also all trust each other.
single domain model
Single domain model
  • Simplest Windows NT domain model
  • One domain that services every user and resource
master domain model
Master domain model
  • Uses a single domain to exert control over user account information
  • Separate resource domains manage resources such as networked printers
what s next
What’s Next

Active Directory