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Monitoring & Parallel. Stations. The Models of Co - Teaching. Differentiated Split. Active Partnership. Kim Trendel & Michelle Koenig. Franklin Public Schools. Kim Trendel. Nationally Board Certified- Exceptional Needs Specialist In my 13 th year of teaching at FPMS

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kim trendel michelle koenig





The Models

of Co-Teaching

Differentiated Split

Active Partnership

Kim Trendel & Michelle Koenig

Franklin Public Schools

kim trendel
Kim Trendel
  • Nationally Board Certified- Exceptional Needs Specialist
  • In my 13th year of teaching at FPMS
  • Cross-categorical teacher
  • Teach self-contained math, Math Lab and Home Base
  • 6th year co-teaching in regular education math classrooms
michelle koenig
Michelle Koenig
  • Nationally Board Certified-EA Math
  • 12th year of teaching
  • FHS & FPMS
  • Currently teaching 8th grade math & algebra, Core Plus, and Home Base
  • 6th year team teaching
  • Evaluations/ Feedback forms
  • Please provide specific comments:
    • What did you learn?
    • How will you implement what you learned today?
  • Any suggestions for improvement

Your questions are important to us, but we also want to make sure we get to cover all of our material.

  • As we present, please fill out the question sheet. We will answer questions at the end of the presentation.
  • If we run out of time, we will use your contact info (as given to us on the sheet) to get an answer to you.
forest park in franklin
Forest Park in Franklin
  • Middle class suburban district
  • 600 students in our school (about 300 per grade level)
  • Grades 7 & 8 (ran out of room for grade 6)
  • Organized in House system
  • Specialist is assigned to each House (CWD or ELL)
population of our team teaching hour
Population of ourTeam-Teaching Hour
  • Students labeled with a disability (SLD, EBD, or OHI)
  • Math Lab students
  • Students that are basic or minimal on WKCE
  • Students that struggle in math
  • Students that “hate” math

Our Definition


Equal partnership in planning and implementing curriculum and assessingstudent work to best meet the needs ofall students in the same classroom. There are different models to reach this goal based on instructional andstudent need. K. Trendel & M. Koenig 2010

are all models of co teaching the same
Are all models of co-teaching the same?

We think that there is a difference

between team teaching and co-teaching.

You will probably start team teaching,

but our goal is to get you to the co-teaching level…

this is where students will

be taken to the next level.

what s the difference
What’s the Difference?


  • Plan lessons together
  • Share instruction load
  • Create and grade assessments together
  • Both actively assess student work
  • *Embed specialized instruction*

Team Teaching:

  • Share in planning
  • Share instruction load
  • Share in creation of assessments
  • Provide accommodations and modifications


  • Monitoring
  • Parallel Teaching


  • Station Teaching
  • Differentiated Split Class
  • Active Partnership
monitoring teacher
Monitoring Teacher
  • This situation occurs when one teacher assumes the responsibility for instructing the entire class, while the other teacher circulates the room and monitors student understanding and behavior
  • Roles should shift between teachers during the class period or week

Lead teacher: takes responsibility in the delivery of instruction, planning, and leading the classroom

Support teacher: takes responsibility for classroom management, paperwork, adaptations, and support as needed, should have the same authority as the lead teacher, can quickly and quietly remove students as to not disrupt classroom learning environment, this role is an active role to improve the quality of learning.

What it is



Both teachers should share in the role of assessment

Teachers should check-in and make any necessary changes to lesson or management

Students remain in whole class instruction

These roles should change on a regular basis- PARITY!

This model should be used in conjunction with other co-teaching models

What it is


One teach, one grade

One teach, one make copies

One teach, one check email

One teach, one get caught up on paperwork

Every day regular ed teacher teach, special ed teacher support

What it is NOT

  • There is no student benefit to using this model if the special education teacher has no role in lesson planning.
  • This strategy should be used only about 15 – 20% of time.
pros of using monitoring
Pros of using Monitoring
  • Similar to traditional teaching
  • Comfortable for teachers
  • Little to no prep time
  • Classroom management
  • Can increase instructional time
  • Struggling students can be identified
  • Both teachers can lead
  • Ensures that accommodations and modifications will be in place
cons of using monitoring
Cons of using Monitoring
  • Does not work for all students
  • No real “pay-off” if one teacher is always in the support role
  • Can lack collaboration
  • Teachers might feel that when they are not lead teacher they can do other work instead of working with students
  • May not have similar philosophies and styles for management, assessment, classroom expectations, rules
  • Spec ed teacher often becomes an assistant
  • If spec ed teacher only works with spec ed students a stigma can be created
  • Can turn into a reactive approach rather than a proactive approach (instead of planning individual needs into the lesson the spec ed teacher must rely on triage, pre-teaching or re-teaching)

If co-teachers are merely taking turns delivering instruction, it begs the question:

“What is substantively different about this class as compared to that of a traditionally solo taught class?”

examples of monitoring

Correcting homework

  • Giving directions
  • Lesson recap
EXAMPLES of Monitoring
parallel instruction1
Parallel Instruction
  • In this setting the class is divided into 2 large groups/smaller groups/partners and both teachers circulate and provide individualized support
parallel instruction2
Parallel Instruction:

Both teachers are responsible for planning and delivering instruction, management, and assessment while students are working in small groups or pairs.

Dual partnership

Allows small group activities for students while getting individualized help from 2 different instructors

Students doing the same activity

What it is

parallel instruction3
Parallel Instruction

Regular ed teacher works with regular ed students and special ed teacher works with special ed students

One teacher doing classroom management

One teacher leading and one teacher MIA

What it is NOT

pros of using parallel instruction
Pros of using Parallel Instruction
  • Students are more likely to ask questions and participate
  • Students are active in learning
  • Good integration of special ed students with their peers
  • Both teachers know the instructional goal
  • Peer partner work is an authentic way to integrate social and behavior goals for special ed students
  • Students complete the same activity while assignments can be tiered for differentiation
  • Get absent students caught up
cons of using parallel instruction
Cons of using Parallel Instruction
  • Both teachers have to know and be comfortable with the material
  • Noisy and distracting classroom environment
  • Transitions can be noisy and time consuming
keys in co teaching
KEYS in Co-Teaching:

1. Always demonstrate parity (teachers and students)

  • Use plural language
  • Both should have adult furniture
  • Spec ed students see the spec ed teacher is their “leader”
  • Both should have a place for supplies
  • Sharing grading responsibility
  • Both names should be on classroom materials
  • Send home a classroom letter
  • Communicate with parents as a team (conferences, email, phone calls)
  • Both give input at CST meetings
keys in co teaching1
KEYS in Co-Teaching:

2. Vary instructional models

  • Look through content to take advantage of all the models to ensure an increase in achievement
station teaching1
Station Teaching
  • Students are divided into groups and rotate through organized stations. Both teachers are teaching at their own station.
  • Two ways to accomplish this task: 1) Same material is taught but teacher stations address different learning styles or 2) different material related to the same concept is taught in both teacher stations.
station teaching2
Station Teaching:

Both teachers plan a lesson in which students rotate through stations that are lead by a teacher or independent work stations.

There can be between 2 and 4 (or more stations) occupied by students at any given time.

Stations are created to “chunk” information.

Teachers will need to plan for which students start in particular stations and how the stations will be rotated

What it is

station teaching3
Station Teaching:

Students should rotate through all stations

Both teachers create student groups and determine how to rotate them

Students will need to be taught how to rotate between stations and how to behave in independent work stations

Both teachers lead stations and/or monitor independent stations

Station groups should change occasionally

What it is

station teaching4
Station Teaching:

For lessons that are linear in which one skill depends on a previous skill

Should not be used to divide students only on ability

Tracking groups

What it is NOT

pros of using station teaching
Pros of using Station Teaching
  • Smaller student-teacher ratios
  • Smaller groups provide for safer environment for students to ask questions or participate
  • Allows for movement breaks
  • Helps students focus on one task
  • Share materials- especially useful if a whole-class set isn’t available
  • Allows teachers to teach the topic they feel most comfortable
  • Allows teachers to become an expert at their station because teachers will teach it several times
  • Can be a time to provide intensive interventions
cons of using station teaching
Cons of using Station Teaching
  • Teachers might be tempted to always group by ability
  • Can be noisy, transitions can be difficult
  • Students may have a difficult time putting together the “chunks” or making connections
  • Teachers may need to manage more than one station
examples of station teaching


  • Direct instruction
  • Independent work
  • Multi-media- video clips
  • Reading textbooks, articles, newspaper
  • Cooperative learning activity
  • Project work- group or independent
EXAMPLES of Station Teaching
differentiated split class
Differentiated Split Class
  • This type of teaching involves dividing the class into smaller groups according to learning needs.
  • Each educator provides the respective group with the instruction required to meet their learning needs.
  • This could be remedial or enrichment instruction.
differentiated split1
Differentiated Split:

Both teachers share in lesson planning and instruction by breaking the class into groups and instructs their group with the added benefit of smaller student-teacher ratio. Both teachers need to feel comfortable with the material for this model to be successful.

What it is

differentiated split2
Differentiated Split:

There are 3 different ways to use this model

Teach the same material in the same way

Teach the same material in a different way

Take into account students likes/dislikes, learning styles, readiness levels, differentiate material and tier assignments

Teach different material

Students won’t switch groups and repeat instruction

What it is

differentiated split3
Differentiated Split:

Teachers face each other, students face away from each other to help minimize noise and help keep students focused on their lesson

Both teachers make modifications and accommodations as necessary.

What it is

differentiated split4
Differentiated Split:

“Separate but equal” approach

Yours and mine

Special ed students always in the same group


Pull-out program

What it is NOT

pros of using differentiated split
Pros of using Differentiated Split
  • Both teachers are actively involved in the lesson
  • Both teachers are lead teachers
  • Smaller student-teacher ratio
  • Flexibility in that students may work with one teacher or both teachers
  • Teachers can be creative when grouping students
  • Encourages teachers to be more creative and teach to different learning styles
  • Allows teachers to “chunk” information in to smaller manageable pieces
  • Teachers can plan their own group which is less time than planning with co-teacher
cons of using differentiated split
Cons of using Differentiated Split
  • Teachers may feel the need to do their own thing rather than collaborating with co-teacher
  • Teachers may feel uncomfortable with the material
  • Room space, noise and board-space can be an issue
  • All activities must be the same amount of time
  • Not all topics can be divided into differentiated split groups
  • Some may be encouraged/inclined to always group the special ed students together in the same group
  • The assumption is that the special ed teacher always works with remedial group and/or special ed students
examples of differentiated split

Flexible grouping

    • Fractions
    • Graphing linear equations with tables
EXAMPLES of Differentiated Split
active partnership1
Active Partnership:
  • The teachers actively share the instruction of content and skills to all students
  • Examples:
    • One teaches while one constructs concept map
    • Dialog between teachers is exchanging and discussing ideas in front of learners
active partnership2
Active Partnership:

Teachers share in the lesson planning to deliver to a whole class as teachers work as a team to deliver instruction, work on building skills, clarify information, and facilitate learning and classroom management

Teachers much trust and respect each other so they can share the stage

What it is

active partnership3
Active Partnership:

Teachers much be able to go back and forth as each are teaching, sharing information, asking questions, clarifying for each other, take notes, model, role play, and/or debate.

Allows for students to see different view points or strategies and for students to realize there is many different ways to get the correct answer

Both teachers can share their strengths and learning styles with students

It is worthwhile discussion that adds to instruction

What it is

active partnership4
Active Partnership:

For teachers that haven’t developed trust and respect for each other

For teachers that don’t feel comfortable sharing more than one “right” way to complete something

For teachers who don’t feel comfortable “jumping in” on a lesson

For teachers that don’t feel confident with the material

What it is NOT

pros of using active partnership
Pros of using Active Partnership
  • Helps to demonstrate parity among teachers
  • Both teachers have ownership because they are integral to this approach
  • Takes full use of two teachers with strategies that cannot be done with one teacher alone
  • Students get multiple paths to information and can choose which works best for them
  • Students see teachers cooperate and work together
cons of using active partnership
Cons of using Active Partnership
  • Multiple strategies for everything could confuse students and slow down instructional pace
  • Can be difficult if trust and respect hasn’t been established
  • Will take planning time, co-teachers have to give up a little control
  • Teachers need to be open minded
examples of active partnership

Drawing 3-D models

  • Calculating surface area and volume
  • Exponents
EXAMPLES of Active Partnership
contact information
Contact Information
  • Kim Trendel, Special Education Teacher

  • Michelle Koenig, Regular Education Math Teacher

thank you for your feedback
Thank you for your feedback!
  • Evaluations/ Feedback forms
  • Please provide specific comments:
    • What did you learn?
    • How will you implement what you learned today?
  • Any suggestions for improvement