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Essential Principles of Motivation. MARCY REISETTER, COUNSELING AND PSYCHOLOGY IN EDUCATION, ROSANNE YOST, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH DAKOTA PLEASE PICK UP EACH OF THE MULTICOLORED SURVEYS AND COMPLETE THEM BEFORE WE BEGIN

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essential principles of motivation

Essential Principles of Motivation

MARCY REISETTER, COUNSELING AND PSYCHOLOGY IN EDUCATION,

ROSANNE YOST, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH DAKOTA

PLEASE PICK UP EACH OF THE MULTICOLORED SURVEYS AND COMPLETE THEM BEFORE WE BEGIN

FOR THE ACADEMIC MOTIVATION SCALE, SUBSTITUTE “ATTEND STAFF DEVELOPMENT” FOR “ATTEND COLLEGE”

slide2
What motivates you to learn in an academic setting?
  • To what extent is lack of motivation an issue in your classroom?
    • How do you address the problem?
    • How would you assess the success of your interventions?
a social cognitive view of motivation contrast to behavior modification
A Social Cognitive View of Motivation [Contrast to Behavior Modification]
  • A Different way to think about Motivation: Learner Centered
    • Social—Learners “read” the social and academic expectations of the setting
    • Cognitive—Mind Mediated

Motivation is a STATE not a trait

the ultimate goal of education self regulated learners who
The Ultimate goal of Education: Self-Regulated Learners who. . .
  • Accept responsibility for their own learning
  • Are flexible in their thinking and problem solving
  • Develop and use self-monitoring skills
  • Are collaborative in task-focused skills
  • Are willing to seek help and support from others
  • Focus on personal progress
  • Focus on learning rather than grades or test scores
  • Welcome challenge
  • How does this compare to the learners

we cultivate now?

3 basic principles
3 Basic Principles
  • Motivation can be defined as our willingness to
    • Engage
    • Commit
    • Persist in an academic task [challenge]
  • Motivation beliefs are stored in connections in our long term memory, [schema] based on our experiences and interpretations of them.
  • Our motivation is influenced by our
    • Expectations for Success and
    • Value for the Task
        • E multiplied by V
schemata
Schemata
  • Mental organizing structures—existing idea networks-- that guide perception and categorize experiences
  • Whether we are aware of them or not, these networks determine how we interpret our experiences and extract meaning from them
  • Motivation schemas can be
    • Adaptive, or
    • Mal-adaptive
    • What happens when a motivation schema is Mal-adaptive?
expectancy x value judgments
Expectancy x Value Judgments
  • Our willingness to expend the effort on an academic task depends on
    • Our Expectations for success with reasonable effort
    • Our assessment of the Value and meaningfulness of the task.
value for the task
Value for the Task
  • What kinds of tasks do your students VALUE?
  • Why?
  • What do you see when they don’t value a task?
value is enhanced when the task is
Value is Enhanced When the Task is
  • Meaningful
  • Connected
  • Relevant
  • Useful

How do we do that?

reasonable expectations for success
Reasonable Expectations for Success
  • Where do they come from?
  • How do learners with expectations for success approach tasks?
  • How do learners with lower expectations for success approach tasks?
expectations for success are enhanced when learners
Expectations for Success are Enhanced when learners. . .
  • Believe in incremental rather than innate intelligence
  • Learn for internalized, self-regulated purposes
  • Pursue mastery goals
  • Have high self-efficacy
  • Attribute success and/or failure to an internal locus of control
  • Have necessary learning strategies and tools
motivation constructs
“Motivation Constructs”

Each of the previous statements represents a set of ideas that individuals hold—ideas that influence their willingness to “engagecommit, and particularly PERSIST” in an academic tasks

Each addresses learners’ expectations for success in a given task setting

slide14
Intrinsic/

Extrinsic

Goal

Orientation

Beliefs about

Knowledge

Self

Efficacy

Hope

Motivation

Attributions

1 beliefs about intelligence knowledge
#1: Beliefs About Intelligence & Knowledge
  • What is Knowledge?
  • Who has it?
  • How do we get it?
  • Where does it come from?
beliefs about knowledge
Beliefs about Knowledge

Assumptions individuals hold about

  • The nature of knowledge
    • Certainty
    • Complexity
  • How knowledge is attained
    • Role of innate ability
    • Role of effort
beliefs about learning survey blue
Beliefs about Learning Survey [blue]
  • Factor 1: Fixed Ability.

Is ability fixed.. . . . . or is it. . . . . . Incremental?

[high points] [low points]

  • Factor 2: Simple Knowledge

Is knowledge simple. . . Or is it. . . Complex?

[high points] [low points]

  • Factor 3: Certain Knowledge

Is knowledge certain. . . Or is it. . . . Relative?

[high points] [low points]

  • Factor 4: Quick Learning

Accomplished quickly. . . . Or. . . with sustained effort?

[high points] [low points]

implications recognize that
Implications: Recognize That. . .
  • Everyone holds beliefs about intelligence and knowledge that influence their learning AND behaviors.
  • These beliefs affect the way we reason
  • Beliefs about knowledge are NOT strongly related to ability, but they are strongly related to engagement and motivation issues
2 intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
#2: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
  • Extrinsic motivation: for external motives, such as incentives and rewards
  • Intrinsic motivation: for internal motives, please in the task for it’s own sake

Which do schools most actively promote? Why? How do you know? What is the message to learners?

Which is the most powerful approach for learning?

the continuum approach self determination
The continuum approach: Self Determination
  • Assumption: the element that defines the difference between Extrinsic and Intrinsic motivation is the degree to which the individual determines task value and importance--

“BUY IN”—aka “Engagement”

levels of task buy in
Levels of task buy in

Based on “Who initiates the involvement and why?”

Extrinsic Motivation has 4 levels

  • External Regulation
  • Introjected Regulation
  • Identified Regulation
  • Integrated Regulation
buy in
Buy-In

Extrinsic

Completely initiated outside…

Reward or punishment…

External

Regulation

Introjected

Regulation

Accepts standards other have specified

Identified

Regulation

Values standards…

Willing engagement…

Integrated

Regulation

Fits own ultimate goals

Intrinsic

slide24
Think of a learning experience in which YOU “moved along the continuum.”
  • What happened to your learning?
  • How was your experience related to Expectation for Success and Value for the Task?
  • So HOW do we move learners “along the continuum”?
basic learner needs
Basic Learner Needs
  • Competence
    • Belief that one can accomplish the task
  • Autonomy
    • Self initiation, self direction, and self regulation
  • Relatedness
    • To others in the learning setting
    • Connections to overall learning goals
implications support for basic needs
Implications: Support for Basic Needs
  • Competence: Attention to task definition
    • Clear
    • Manageable
    • Challenging
    • Criterion referenced success standards
  • Autonomy: Choices
    • Time flexibility
    • Alternative ways to reach goals
    • Participation in decision making
  • Relatedness: De-emphasize competition
    • Emphasis on effort
    • Collaboration
    • Social construction How could YOU support each of these?
academic motivation scale white
Academic Motivation Scale [white]
  • What did this instrument tell you about your intrinsic/extrinsic balance?
  • Did it seem accurate? Why/why not?
  • Comments?
3 goal orientations
#3. Goal Orientations
  • Beliefs individuals hold about the purposes of learning
    • Why we learn
    • For whom
    • How success is achieved

IMPACT: How we approach challenging tasks

  • Two basic types of goals
    • Mastery Goals
    • Performance Goals
underlying theories of intelligence
Underlying Theories of Intelligence
  • Entity Theories
  • Incremental Theories
goal orientation
Performance:

Goal is to gain

positive judgments

& avoid negative

judgments of ability

[Prove]

Mastery

Goal is to increase

ability and personal

competence

[Improve]

Goal Orientation
theory of intelligence
Theory of Intelligence

EntityPerformance:

Intelligence Goal is to gain

is a fixed positive judgments

trait & avoid negative

judgments of ability

[Prove]

IncrementalMastery

Intelligence Goal is to increase

is ability and personal

malleable competence

[Improve]

typical behavior
Typical Behavior

EntityPerformance: Helplessness

Intelligence Goal is to gain Avoid risk

is a fixed positive judgments Give up easily

trait & avoid negative Make excuses

judgments of ability

[Prove]

IncrementalMasteryEffort

Intelligence Goal is to increase Seek challenge

is ability and personal Persist

malleable competence Take responsibility

[Improve] Problem Solve

goal orientations beliefs compare contrast
Competence develops through effort & practice

Enjoyment of challenging tasks

Easy tasks viewed as boring

Effort competence

More intrinsic motivation to learn

Use of learning strategies for deep comprehension

Self-evaluative

Errors are viewed as useful

Failure can be informational

Teacher seen as resource/guide

Which learner do you prefer? Why?

Competence—you have it or you don’t!

Avoidance of challenging tasks

Easy tasks are desirable

Effort = low competence

More extrinsic motivation

Reliance on rote learning

Comparison of self to others

Errors seen as failures

Failure = low ability

Teacher viewed as judge, rewarder, and punisher

Goal Orientations Beliefs: Compare/Contrast

Performance Orientation

Mastery Orientation

quadrants
Quadrants

Mastery Orientation

HIGH

LOW

HIGH

Performance

Orientation

LOW

goals inventory yellow
Goals Inventory [yellow]
  • Eliminate #s 7, 9, & 13
  • Mark the following with “P”:
    • 2, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 18
  • Mark the following with “M”
      • 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 14, 16
  • Add P scores and divide by 7
  • Add M scores and divide by 8
slide36
PERFORMANCE

5

LM/HP

HM/HP

4

3

2

1

5

4

MASTERY

HM/LP

LM/LP

2

1

slide37
Students with a strong mastery orientation are more successful learners , REGARDLESS of whether performance orientation is high or low.

Implications?

4 self efficacy
#4: Self-Efficacy

Beliefs about the degree of “effect” we can have on a learning situation.

Think about a situation in which you perceive you can have an impact. Now think of one where you don’t believe you can have much. Compare your motivation to engage in each of these settings

Context and topic specific

Perception!

implications improving self efficacy
Implications: Improving Self-Efficacy
  • Increase students’ awareness of the self-efficacy concept
  • Use expert and inexpert modeling…scaffold
    • so that students can understand developing expertise
  • Provide feedback…
    • that functions to help students develop expertise through analysis of own performance
    • specific
  • Build self-efficacy rather than reduce expectations
    • reductions undermine efficacy
  • Encourage self-regulation
    • students take control of their learning process
5 causal attributions
#5. Causal Attributions
  • Who or what is responsible for our successes and failures? Are these. . .
    • Internal or External ?
    • Stable or Unstable?
    • Controllable or Uncontrollable?

Locus of control

Learned helplessness

3 issues in attribution theory
3 Issues in Attribution Theory

Locus of control:

▪ Where does control lie?

▪ Internal vs. external

▪ “I” vs. “They” thinking

Attribution

Theory

Stability:

▪ Stable vs. unstable

▪ Does outcome change

or fluctuate?

Controllability:

▪ Controllable vs. un-

controllable

▪ Are any variables with-

in my control?

possible attributions
Possible Attributions
  • Effort
  • Ability
  • Task difficulty
  • Luck

Which is most “adaptive” and why?

controllability is any of this within my control
Controllability · is any of this within my control?

Locus of Control

Task Difficulty

Ability

Stable

Stability

This isn’t up to me.

I can’t really control this.

Effort

Luck

Unstable

This is something I have control over!

This is completely out of my control.

attribution dimensions
Attribution Dimensions

Locus:

Stability:

Controllability:

implications improving student attributions
Implications: Improving Student Attributions
  • Discuss effects of attributions with students
    • leading to emphasis on the role of effort
  • Help students focus on controllable causes
    • in order to increase task engagement, persistence, and performance
  • Consider alternative causes of success and failure
    • identify and help students modify
  • Be mindful of inadvertent “low-ability cues”
    • which undermine both self-efficacy and attributions to controllable factors

How do we do these things?

attribution inventory green
Attribution Inventory [green]
  • Specific to Locus of Control Dimension Only
  • Scoring--
    • Eliminate item 8
    • Reverse score #s 1, 3, 4, 9, 12
      • [1=5; 2=4; 3=3]
    • Add your points, divide by 11
    • Higher the score, the more EXTERNAL the perceived locus of control

Did this instrument describe you accurately? Why/why not? contrast to Behavior Modification] contrast to Behavior Modification]

5 the hope construct
5. The “Hope” Construct
  • Agency [“the Will”]
  • Pathways [“the Ways”]
            • aka study strategies]
  • Connect this construct with
    • Self Regulation
    • Self Efficacy
    • Self Determination
the hope scale
The Hope Scale
  • Eliminate 3, 5, 7, 11,
  • Add for Pathways Score
    • 1, 4, 6, 8
    • Divide by 4
  • Add for Agency Score
    • 2, 9, 10, 12
    • Divide by 4
slide51
Intrinsic/

Extrinsic

Goal

Orientation

Beliefs about

Knowledge

Self

Efficacy

Hope

Motivation

Attributions

synthesis
Synthesis
  • What ideas link each of these constructs?
  • How can you summarize the implications for classroom practice?
  • Specifically, what can you implement in your classroom?
  • What do you need to think more about?
  • What questions do you still have?
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