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Unit III: Quest for Justice. “Raymond’s Run” By Toni Cade Bambara (1939-1995). “Raymond’s Run” by Toni Cade Bambara.

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Unit iii quest for justice

Unit III: Quest for Justice

“Raymond’s Run”

By Toni Cade Bambara


Raymond s run by toni cade bambara
“Raymond’s Run”by Toni Cade Bambara

  • Theme of story: In leading the way, a sister leads the way for her brother. Be true to yourself, and what you believe in, and demand respect for yourself, as well as overcoming obstacles.

  • Narrator: the speaker or character who tells the story

  • Narrator of story: Squeaky is the narrator and is younger than her brother Raymond

  • Plot: the sequence or pattern of events of a short story

  • Setting: the time and place of a short story

  • Setting of story: New York City, Harlem at the May Day races

Raymond s run by toni cade bambara1
“Raymond’s Run”by Toni Cade Bambara

  • Characterization: the process of creating memorable characters

  • Protagonist: the main character of a story (Squeaky)

  • Antagonist: a force in conflict with the main character of a story (Gretchen)

  • Flat character: Mary Louise, Rosie, Raymond, Gretchen, Cynthia

  • Round Characters: Squeaky = direct, confident, honesty, demands respect, strongly opinionated, aggressive, proud, sometimes immature (Direct [some] and Indirect = through conversations with Mary Louise and Rosie)

  • Static characters: characters who do NOT change throughout the story (Mary Louise, Rosie, Cynthia, Gretchen)

  • Dynamic characters: characters who change or grow during the course of the story (Squeaky, Raymond = usually change in significant ways as the story unfolds)

Raymond s run by toni cade bambara2
“Raymond’s Run”by Toni Cade Bambara

  • Major characters: one on whom the story focuses, and usually is the most important character in the story (Squeaky and Raymond = his name is in the title, a big influence in Squeaky’s life)

  • Minor characters: one who takes part in the action but is NOT the focus (Mary Louise, Rosie, Cynthia, Gretchen)

  • Indirect characterization: the writer depends on the reader to draw conclusions based on what the character says, does, and what others say

  • Direct characterization: the writer states the character’s traits

  • Conflict: a struggle between two opposing forces

  • Conflict of story:

    • 1. Squeaky vs. girls (external)

    • 2. Squeaky vs. Gretchen (external)

Raymond s run by toni cade bambara3
“Raymond’s Run”by Toni Cade Bambara

  • Climax: the peak or high point of interest of the story

  • Climax of story: p. 297, 2nd column, “Get on your mark, the dream goes and I’m solid again”

  • Resolution: the solving of the conflict

  • Resolution of story: p. 299, announcing the winners of the race

  • Point of view: the angle or perspective from which the story is told

  • Point of view of story: this story is told in First Person = where the narrator is a character in the story and participates, and refers to herself as “I”

  • Inferences: drawing conclusions based on information given

Raymond s run by toni cade bambara4
“Raymond’s Run”by Toni Cade Bambara

  • Inferences in story and Predicting Outcomes:

    • p. 293 “…private information” predicts that Squeaky may lose a race later in the story

    • p. 293 “…subject to fits of fantasy…” predicts that although Squeaky cheerfully looks after Raymond, it also says she’s confident and strong and loyal and this say something will involve Raymond

    • p. 294 “…it’s going to be one of those Dodge City scenes…” predicts Squeaky will have a verbal or physical fight with Gretchen and her pals

    • p. 295 “…and Gretchen shifts from one leg….and her sidekicks follow her…” predicts Squeaky and Gretchen and her followers will have another confrontation

    • p. 296 “…well Hazel….else a break this year?” predicts Squeaky will win because she is the fastest, or that Squeaky will lose a race because she respects Gretchen

    • p. 297 “…ole Raymond’s on the line on the other side of the fence…holler.” Predicts that Squeaky can’t be with him now, but still worries, and that Raymond’s important to the story’s title, he is happening, and he may race along the other side of the fence.

Raymond s run by toni cade bambara5
“Raymond’s Run”by Toni Cade Bambara

  • Notes:

    • Squeaky’s relaxed and confidant as she goes into her visualizing images that create her good luck and help her win the races

    • Squeaky doesn’t know the outcome of the race because she’s thinking about Raymond

    • Squeaky learns that generosity is more important than pride and that Raymond could be a runner, and she could coach and maybe Gretchen could co-coach!



“Paul Revere’s Ride”

by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

(1807 – 1882)

Paul revere s ride by henry wadsworth longfellow
“Paul Revere’s Ride”By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

  • Theme of narrative poem: Some people are inspired to lead the way even if it means facing danger. Sometimes ordinary people perform extraordinary acts and show qualities of leadership, such as bravery, decisiveness, and thoughtfulness.

  • Speaker of poem: the writer, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

  • Symbol: one thing stands for or represent something else

  • Symbol of poem:

    • 1. “…spark of horse’s shoes on cobblestones” (line 79) stands for the spark of freedom and rebellion

    • 2. Revere’s acts symbolize the American spirit and courage

Paul revere s ride by henry wadsworth longfellow1
“Paul Revere’s Ride”By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

  • Sensory Language:

    • 1. “…signal light…” = sight

    • 2. “…muffled oar…” = sound

    • 3. “…a huge black hulk…” = sight

    • 4. “…silence around him…” = sound

    • 5. “…now he patted his….” = touch

    • 6. “…hear the crowing…” = sound

    • 7. “…felt the damp…” = touch

  • metaphor: comparing two unlike things NOT using “like” and “as”

  • metaphor of poem: the ship Somerset is compared to a ghosts

Paul revere s ride by henry wadsworth longfellow2
“Paul Revere’s Ride”By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

  • simile: comparing two unlike things using “like” or “as

  • simile of poem: the masts and spars are compared to prison bars

  • imagery of poem: ghostly, ominous effects of the British, to appear the “bad guys”

  • stanza: there are many divisions of lines of poetry, but none conclusively named, but a very definite rhythm

  • rhyme scheme of poem: aabba




    • very different pattern in each stanza, but some patterns evolve

Paul revere s ride by henry wadsworth longfellow3
“Paul Revere’s Ride”By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

  • repetition of poem: “It was twelve;;;” changes “one” “two” = keeps changing as the time passes, but essentially the repeated line

  • signal words: words used to make transitions to signal a change taking place

  • signal words of poem:

    • “then” line 15, 31

    • “meanwhile” line 24, 57

    • used in order to show the sequencing of the events in the poem

  • alliteration of poem:

    • line 25 “w”

    • line 36 “m”

    • line 46 “w”

    • line 56 “b”

  • free verse: no patterns set, rhyme stresses or beats, now refrain

  • narrative poem: a story told in verse, that has all of the elements of a short story

Paul revere s ride by henry wadsworth longfellow4
“Paul Revere’s Ride”By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

  • Elements of a short story:

  • Characterization: the art of creating or developing a character

  • Paul Revere = brave, thoughtful, decisive, tireless and determined (Indirect)

  • Heroic characters: The actions of characters are heroic, and inspiring, and noble. They bravely overcome the obstacles and problems that stand in the way.

  • Heroic character of poem: Paul Revere

    • The opening line of the poem is like the oral story telling tradition

    • The plan includes a warning that the British are coming 1=land 2=sea **the friend of Revere’s is Robert Newman, the sexton of the North Church

    • Waiting for the signal, Revere is eager, nervous, and tense as he paces and stomps

    • Revere signals the colonists (lines 119-124) show that Americans will rise to the occasion



“O Captain! My Captain!”

by Walt Whitman

(1819 - 1892)

Paul revere s ride by henry wadsworth longfellow5
“Paul Revere’s Ride”By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

  • Foreshadowing: clues that build expectations to create suspense

  • Foreshadowing of poem: (lines 99-100) note the coming of the revolution, precisely the first firings of guns at Lexington and at Concord

  • Conflict of poem: Paul Revere vs. British

  • Climax: peak or high point of interest of poem

  • Climax of poem: (line 72) Paul Revere sees two lamps in the North Church belfry

  • Resolution: the solving of the conflict

  • Resolution of poem: (Lines 115-118) the colonists rise up against the British

O captain my captain by walt whitman
“O Captain! My Captain!”By Walt Whitman

  • Theme of poem: Taking a stand, or doing what is right, can be challenging, especially if one does NOT have the support of the people.

  • Speaker of poem: the poet, Walt Whitman, is the speaker

  • Metaphor: comparing two unlike things NOT using “like” or “as”

  • Metaphor of poem:

    • 1. President Lincoln is a captain at the helm , and the country makes it through

      a terrible storm or fearful trip

    • 2. The US is the ship, just brought safely to shore

    • 3. The storm or fearful trip is the Civil War

    • 4. The ‘prize” and the “port” refer to peace