Sexually Transmitted Infections Health Education Mr. Sheldon
Viruses • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) • Herpes • Hepatitis B • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Not curable – can only treat the symptoms!
HPV • Direct cause of cervical cancer • Symptoms: warts or no symptoms • Highly contagious with or without symptoms • Spread through skin to skin contact, oral, vaginal, anal sex • Not curable – possible for girls to be vaccinated before exposure • Can be passed from mother to child at birth • Prevention – no sexual contact. Condom has limited effectiveness
Herpes • 1 in 5 Americans • Simplex 1 – Mouth (cold sores) • Simplex 2 – Genitals • Transmitted: skin to skin, mouth to genitals, touching sore then touching skin • Symptoms: rash/blisters • Can cause birth defects and passed mother to child • Treatment: medication for outbreaks • Condoms provide limited protection during outbreak. • Possible to transmit virus even when not experiencing outbreak.
Hepatitis B • Causes infection of the liver • Transmitted through oral, anal, vaginal sexual contact, sharing needles, mother to child. • Symptoms: Flu like, jaundice, or no symptoms. • No cure for Hepatitis B – vaccine can be taken before exposure.
HIV/AIDS • Causes weakening of the immune system. • HIV is the virus. Blood count level determines when someone has AIDS. • Present in Blood, Semen, Vaginal fluid, breast milk. • Ways of transmission: Oral, anal, vaginal sex, sharing needles, mother to child
HIV Continued • Signs & Symptoms • No symptoms • Average time between HIV infection & AIDS is 8-11 years • Over time, HIV causes body to develop infections normally controlled by immune system • Diagnosed through blood test • Treatment: No cure – drugs to allow people to live with HIV for longer periods of time.
Bacterial • Gonorrhea • Syphilis • Chlamydia Treated with antibiotics.
Gonorrhea • 40 Million infections in United States • Grows in warm, moist places (uterus, fallopian tubes, urethra, throat, mouth) • Symptoms: often none • Women: burning sensation when urinating, discharge • Men: burning sensation when urinating, discharge, swollen testicles • Prevention: no physical contact with exposed person
Gonorrhea • Causes infertility in both men and women • Easier to catch HIV when infected with Gonorrhea • Can spread to blood system leading to death. • Antibiotics used to treat, do not prevent future infections.
Syphilis • Very few cases in US (less than 40,000) • Passed by touching sores on infected person, sexual contact • Very few symptoms: sores first (first 6 weeks), Skin rash, long term damage to heart, brain, eyes, liver. • Treated very easily with antibiotics • Untreated leads to death
Chlamydia • Teenage girls have highest risk (not fully developed cervix) • “silent disease” – most people have no symptoms. • Symptoms: • Women: abdominal pain, bleeding, nausea • Men: discharge, burning sensation when urinating
Chlamydia • Causes infertility in women & men • Transmitted through vaginal, anal and oral sex. • Treated with antibiotics • Condoms: reduce risk of transmission
Parasites • Pubic Lice • Scabies Treated with Shampoos/Lotions.
Pubic Lice – “Crabs” • Tiny insects live in pubic hair – feed on human blood. • 3 million cases per year in U.S. • Spread through physical contact & linens • Symptoms: itching
Scabies • Mite that burrows into skin • Lays eggs under skin • Symptoms: Intense itching, red bumps, crusty skin • Spread through physical contact, sharing clothing, towels, bedding
Testing • Most be done by a doctor! • Should be tested before and after sexual contact. • Only 1 Method of birth control guarantees you will not become infected: Not having sex