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Sedimentary Rock. Sedimentary Rock. Sedimentary rock is created when existing rock breaks down into sediments , and then the sediments are recombined by compaction and cementation. Sedimentary Rock. Sediments are created by three forces: Weathering Erosion Deposition. Weathering.

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sedimentary rock1
Sedimentary Rock
  • Sedimentary rock is created when existing rock breaks down into sediments, and then the sediments are recombined by compaction and cementation
sedimentary rock2
Sedimentary Rock
  • Sediments are created by three forces:
    • Weathering
    • Erosion
    • Deposition
weathering
Weathering
  • Weathering is any process that breaks down rock.
  • There are two types of weathering
    • Chemical weathering
    • Mechanical weathering
chemical weathering
Chemical Weathering
  • Chemical Weathering is the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
  • Water is the most important agent of chemical weathering
mechanical weathering
Mechanical Weathering
  • Mechanical weathering occurs when physical forces break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing its composition
mechanical weathering1
Mechanical Weathering
  • Three forces account for the majority of mechanical weathering:
    • Frost wedging
    • Unloading
    • Biological Activity
frost wedging
Frost Wedging
  • When liquids freeze they expand, causing rock to break apart.
unloading
Unloading
  • Unloading occurs when pressure is removed from a rock body causing it to expand and break
biological activity
Biological Activity
  • The activities of plants and animals can cause rock to break apart
  • For example tree roots can break through rock layers, or borrowing animals creating holes in rock.
erosion
Erosion
  • Erosion is the removal of rock and its movement by water, wind, ice, or gravity.
deposition
Deposition
  • When water, wind, ice or gravity loses energy the sediments are released and deposited in a new area.
  • Sediments are deposited according to size, with larger sediments being released first
sedimentary rock3
Sedimentary Rock
  • Compaction and cementation are the two processes that change sediment into sedimentary rock.
compaction
Compaction
  • Compaction is a process that squeezes, or compacts sediments
cementation
Cementation
  • Cementation takes place when dissolved minerals are deposited in tiny spaces among the sediments.
  • These minerals hold the sedimentary rocks together
classification of sedimentary rock
Classification of Sedimentary Rock
  • Sedimentary rocks like igneous rock can be classified into two groups based on how the form:
    • Clastic Sedimentary Rock
    • Chemical Sedimentary Rock
clastic sedimentary rock
Clastic Sedimentary Rock
  • Clastic Sedimentary Rocks are created when weathered bits of rocks or minerals are cemented together
chemical and biochemical sedimentary rocks
Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks
  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks are created when dissolved minerals precipitate from water solutions
  • Biochemical Sedimentary rocks are created when living or once living materials are cemented together
features of sedimentary rock
Features of Sedimentary Rock
  • Sedimentary rock can have unique features that can help us interpret the history of the Earth.
  • Some Features include:
    • Ripples
    • Mud Cracks
    • Fossils