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bowel prep yes or no

Bowel prep- yes or no?

Ian Botterill

Dept Colorectal Surgery

St James’ University Hospital

Leeds

goligher 1970 s
Goligher (1970’s)

“…there are great advantages to operating on an empty colon

…if the growth is stenotic, 10-14 days should be set aside

… excellent preparation may be obtained with 30l via the irrigation machine

…my preference is 5-6 days, initial softening then vigorous expulsion with castor oil … finally, massive colonic irrigation in the terminal phase ….this process can be exhausting for frail, elderly patients

….some suggest that it may lead to hypovolaemia and circulatory imbalance”

Surgery of the Anus, Rectum & Colon 3rd edition 1975

heresy
Heresy….
  • Irving et al 1987 (BJS) - retrospective, uncontrolled study - no bowel prep - 72 1y anastomoses - no leaks - 8% wound sepsis
the bjs response
The BJS response

“this paper which challenges accepted surgical practice, is a veritable little bomb of a paper, brief, iconoclastic and disrespectful of hallowed tradition in surgery”Professor David Johnston, BJS 1987;74:553-4

justification for using bowel prep
Justification for using bowel prep
  • Poor mechanical bowel prep associated with anastomotic dehiscence1
  • “Notwithstanding recent publications ….intuitively it is unfathomable to believe that stool does not have deleterious effect on a healing anastomosis”21 Irvin, Goligher BJS 1973;60:461-4 2 Surgery for the Colon, Rectum & Anus 2nd ed. Gordon & Nivatvongs. 1999
downside of bowel prep
Downside of bowel prep

Hypovolaemia

- ↓ cardiac output / shock - ↓ coronary artery filling - colonic mucosal ischaemia

Electrolyte disturbance - fits - dysrhythmias - myopathy - nausea

Diarrhoea - lack of sleep &vitality

Colonic explosion

bowel prep creation of a need for pre optimisation
Bowel prep- creation of a need for ‘pre-optimisation’?
  • Pts undergoing major elective surgery (large DGH)
  • Randomised to : - standard care - HDU pre-optimisation (fluids +/- 2 inotropes) guided by PAFC / CVP
  • Active treatment group -required 1.5l IV fluid -↓ M&M & ↓ LoS

Wilson et al. BMJ 1999;318:1099-1103

cochrane review 2004
Cochrane review 2004
  • Inclusion criteria - randomised clinical trials, elective surgery - leak rate (1y outcome) clearly stated
  • Stratified (where possible) - low anterior resection - colo-colic / intra-peritoneal anastomosis
cochrane review 2 y outcome measures
Cochrane review-2y outcome measures
  • Mortality
  • Peritonitis
  • Re-operation
  • Wound sepsis
  • Extra-abdominal (infectious / non-infectious)
  • Total infection rate
recruitment to cochrane review
Recruitment to Cochrane review
  • Oral bowel prep (+/- enema) versus nil
  • Standard meta-analysis methodology
studies included excluded
Studies included / excluded
  • 14 studies identified - 5 excluded: no control (3) elemental diet in controls (1) ill-defined outcomes (1)
  • 9 included - 7 english / 1 spanish / 1 portugese - 3/9 abstracts - 9 trials: 789 oral prep / 803 no oral prep
cochrane review problems
Cochrane review: problems….
  • Power calculation 0/9
  • Intention to treat analysis 0/9
cochrane review casemix of included studies
Cochrane review-casemix of included studies
  • No anastomosis- 2/9 included pts without an anastomosis - 2/9 included pts ultimately not anastomosed
  • Preoperative radio / chemoradiotherapy- 0/9 studies reported use
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis- 2/9 did not describe use
  • Demographics- 3/9 did not describe demographics / operation - 1/9 described significant diff’s
cochrane review exclusion criteria in the papers
Cochrane review:-exclusion criteria in the papers
  • No description of exclusion criteria (4/9)
  • Recent antibiotics / bowel prep (3/9)
  • Failure to tolerate prep (2/9)
  • No anastomosis performed (2/9)
potential bias in included papers 1
Potential bias in included papers (1)
  • None used ITT analysis-3/9 withdrew pts after randomisation (5%,31%,10%)
  • Selection bias: 5/9 randomisation not described
  • Blinding: 8/9 not blinded
  • Performance bias: nil detected
potential bias 2
Potential bias (2)
  • Attrition bias:-4/9 did not describe withdrawls
  • Detection bias-4/9 did not describe diagnostic processes
  • Reporting bias- 5/9 no stratification of leaks into anastomotic subgroups
2 y outcome measures
2y outcome measures
  • Focal peritoneal sepsis -5.7% (bowel prep) -2.5% (no prep) p=0.05
  • Other 2y endpoints - no significant differences
sensitivity analysis
Sensitivity analysis
  • Exclusion studies with inadequate randomisation- OR unchanged, significance lost (T2 error)
  • Exclusion of studies in abstract form- no effect
  • Exclusion of study including children- no effect
  • Exclusion of studies including no anastomosis- ↓ OR of leak 2.1 (2.3) p=0.03
length of stay
Length of stay?

L.o.S. only quoted in 1/9 articles reviewed!

  • Multimodal peri-operative recovery package
  • Managed care pathways

Henrik Kehlet

24hrs & 48hrs post sigmoid colectomy

cochrane conclusions for practice
Cochrane conclusions for practice
  • Oral bowel prep “… not been shown to be valuable … may lead to ↑ anastomotic leakage … oral bowel prep should be omitted”
cochrane conclusions implications for research
Cochrane conclusions -implications for research

“results of this show the necessity of completing more, properly designed trails” …blinding & stratification …consider pre-op radiotherapy …inclusion & exclusion criteria …define discharge criteria, dropout & outcome measures

proposed avoidance of oral prep
Proposed avoidance of oral prep…
  • Colon surgery -R hemi / extended R hemi / subtotal -L hemi*
  • Permanent stoma- Hartmann’s - APER* - PPC & ileostomy
  • Proctology-Abdominal rectopexy* -Anal sphincter repair* -Rectal flap advancement*
  • PPC & IPAA*

* Use enema

proposed cases for oral prep
Proposed cases for oral prep?
  • Generally need defunctioning- TME
  • Undergone RT / CRT
  • Possible need for on-table colonoscopy- the ‘unknown’ colonoscopist - severe sigmoid diverticular disease - small tumour - consider tattooing for laparoscopic resection
summary
Summary
  • Dogma (n.) :- a doctrine or code of beliefs accepted as authorative
  • a doctrinal notion asserted without regard to evidence or truth
  • Recognise morbidity of bowel prep
  • Recognise limitations of current evidence base - effect of radiotherapy - type of procedures & pts suitable for accelerated care
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