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A Hardware-Software Processor Architecture Using Pipeline Stalls For Leakage Power Management

A Hardware-Software Processor Architecture Using Pipeline Stalls For Leakage Power Management

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A Hardware-Software Processor Architecture Using Pipeline Stalls For Leakage Power Management

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  1. A Hardware-Software Processor Architecture UsingPipeline Stalls For Leakage Power Management Thesis Committee: Dr. Vishwani Agrawal, Advisor Dr. Victor Nelson Dr. Adit Singh KhushbooSheth Master’s Thesis Defense December 3, 2008 Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 1

  2. Outline • Motivation • Background • NOP-cycle method for energy saving • Comparison of Reference method with NOP-cycle method • Architecture Modification • Power Management Techniques • Sleep mode operation • Drowsy mode operation • Conclusion Sheth: MS Thesis

  3. Power components in CMOS circuit Ron VDD Dynamic power vi (t) vo(t) Leakage power CL R=large Short circuit power Ground Sheth: MS Thesis

  4. Motivation • Technology scaling • Per transistor dynamic power decreases • Per transistor leakage power increases • Number of transistors increase • Contribution of Leakage increases • Reduction in threshold voltage Gate size Power Density Leakage Sheth: MS Thesis

  5. Processor Power Trend • Processor power increases every generation Sheth: MS Thesis

  6. Objective of This Work • Explore power management for a processor at the architecture level. • Reduce power and minimize leakage energy. • Propose and evaluate a new hardware-software technique for power management. Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 6

  7. Background • A simple technique to reduce power is to slow-down the clock: • Dynamic power reduced in proportion to clock rate. • Leakage power remains unchanged. • A computing task takes longer in the power saving mode: • Consumes the same dynamic energy • Consumes more leakage energy • We use this as a reference method. Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 7

  8. Clock-Slowdown (Reference) Method • Normal operation: • Rated clock frequency, f • Dynamic power, Pd • Static power, Ps • Total power, Pd + Ps • Energy consumed by an N-cycle task = (Pd + Ps) N/f • Power saving mode: • Clock frequency, f/n • Dynamic Power, Pd/n • Static Power, Ps • Total power, P(n) = Pd/n +Ps • Energy consumed by an N-cycle task, E(N,n) = (Pd+ nPs) N/f Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 8

  9. Power Saving Ratio • P-ratio = P(1)/P(n) = n(Pd + Ps)/(Pd + nPs) = n(k+1)/(k+n), where k = Pd/Ps • Low leakage technology, k >> 1 P-ratio = n • High leakage technology, k ≤ 2 P-ratio = 3n/(n+2) for k = 2 = 2n/(n+1) for k = 1 = 3n/(2n+1) for k = 0.5 Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 9

  10. Power Saving Ratio, P-ratio 5 4 3 2 1 Low leakage k >> 1 P-ratio k = 2 k = 1 k = 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 Clock slowdown factor, n Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 10

  11. Energy Saving Ratio • E-ratio = E(N,1)/E(N,n) = (Pd + Ps)/(Pd + nPs) = n P-ratio = (k+1)/(k+n), where k = Pd/Ps • Low leakage technology, k >> 1 E-ratio = 1 • High leakage technology, k ≤ 2 E-ratio = 3/(n+2) for k = 2 = 2/(n+1) for k = 1 = 3/(2n+1) for k = 0.5 Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 11

  12. Energy Saving Ratio, E-ratio 4 3 2 1 0 k = 0.5 k = 1 Energy increase → k = 2 1/E-ratio No energy increase Low leakage k >> 1 1 2 3 4 5 Clock slowdown factor, n Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 12

  13. Instruction Slowdown: New Energy Saving Method • Maintain rated clock frequency (f). • Instruction slowdown factor, m, where m ≥ 0; power management hardware inserts m nop’s per instruction. • Provide hardware sleep modes to reduce nop power: • Power control signals generated by control logic • ALU powered down • Register file clocks gated • Memory sleep mode • Pipeline register clocks gated Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 13

  14. Power Consumed With NOPs P = Power consumed by instructions cycles P/f = energy consumed per instruction cycle βP/f = energy consumed per NOP cycle β = reduction factor (0≤β≤1) due to power down/sleep modes f/(m+1) Instruction cycles Energy = P/(m+1) mf/(m+1) NOP cycles Energy = mβP/(m+1) 1 second (f cycles) Power = P(1 + mβ)/(m + 1) Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 14

  15. NOP-Cycles Method • Normal operation: • Rated clock frequency, f, m = 0 • Dynamic power, Pd • Static power, Ps • Total power, Pd + Ps • Energy consumed by an N-cycle task = (Pd + Ps) N/f • Power saving mode: • Clock frequency, f • Dynamic Power, Pd (1 + mβ)/(m + 1) • Static Power, Ps (1 + mβ)/(m + 1) • Total power, P(m) = (Pd + Ps) (1 + mβ)/(m + 1) • Energy consumed by an N-cycle task, E(N,m) = (Pd+Ps) [(1+mβ)/(m+1)] N(m+1)/f = (Pd+Ps)(1+mβ)N/f Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 15

  16. Power and Energy Saving Ratio • P-ratio = P(0) / P(m) = (m + 1) / (1 + mβ) • E-ratio = E(N,0) / E(N,m) = 1 / (1 + mβ) Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 16

  17. Power Saving Ratio, P-ratio 5 4 3 2 1 Ideal case β = 0 β = 0.1 Decreasing power → P-ratio β = 0.33 β = 0.5 β = 1 0 1 2 3 4 Instruction slowdown factor, m Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 17

  18. Energy Saving Ratio, P-ratio 5 4 3 2 1 β = 1 1/E-ratio β = 0.5 Increasing energy → β = 0.33 β = 0.1 β = 0 0 1 2 3 4 Instruction slowdown factor, m Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 18

  19. Comparing Two Cases • Energy(Clock slowdown)/Energy(Instruction slowdown) k + m + 1 = _____________ (k+1) (1+mβ) where, n = m+1, and k = Pd/Ps Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 19

  20. Clock Slowdown Vs. Instruction Slowdown, β = 1 (No Sleep Mode) 4 3 2 1 0 Energy ratio Advantage → k = 0.5 k = 1 k = 2 k >> 1 0 1 2 3 4 Slowdown factor, m or n-1 Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 20

  21. Clock Slowdown Vs. Instruction Slowdown, β = 0.5 (Sleep Mode) 4 3 2 1 0 Energy ratio Advantage → k = 0.5 k = 1 k = 2 k >> 1 0 1 2 3 4 Slowdown factor, m or n-1 Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 21

  22. Clock Slowdown Vs. Instruction Slowdown, β = 0.1 (Sleep Mode) 4 3 2 1 0 k = 0.5 Energy ratio k = 1 Advantage → k = 2 k >> 1 0 1 2 3 4 Slowdown factor, m or n-1 Dec 3, 2008 Sheth: MS Thesis Sheth: MS Thesis 22

  23. 32 Bit MIPS pipeline processor Sheth: MS Thesis

  24. Modified Architecture Slow down signal ALU, Data memory and Register File put to sleep mode Sheth: MS Thesis

  25. Power Management Techniques • Clock Gating: • Clock Signal halted in idle devices • Switching activity reduced • Leakage power unaffected • A glitch can cause a temporarily false clock turn off/on • Enabled Flip Flops: • Registers replaced by a representative with an enabled signal • When disabled, outputs are not changing • Reduces switching activity, but clock still active which consumes lot of power • Less effective Sheth: MS Thesis

  26. Sleep Mode Operation • Activity of the entire system is monitored rather than that of the individual modules. • If the system has been idle for some predetermined time-out duration, then the entire system is shut down and enters what is known as sleep mode. • System inputs are monitored for activity, which will then trigger the system to wake up and resume processing. • Overhead in time and power associated with entering and leaving sleep mode. • Trade-offs to be made in setting the length of the desired time-out period. Sheth: MS Thesis

  27. Implementing Sleep Mode • Power-gating technique • Suitably sized header or footer transistor for a circuit block • Sleep signal applied to the gate of the header or footer transistor to turn-off the supply voltage of the circuit block • When circuit block is being requested for use, the sleep signal is de-asserted to restore the voltage at the virtual Vdd. Sheth: MS Thesis

  28. Drowsy mode for memories • To retain any information stored in the memory cells when switched to low-power mode drowsy mode provides a better solution • High-threshold (high-Vt) transistor used to separate virtual Vdd from Vdd supply line • Supplies a very low voltage to the cell when it is turned in to low power mode • High-Vt device drastically reduces the leakage of the circuit because of the exponential dependence of leakage on Vt Sheth: MS Thesis

  29. Conclusion • For the higher-leakage technologies, hardware-software technique inserts pipeline stalls in the processor while maintaining the clock rate of the processor. The hardware units are designed to save leakage power while processing NOP instruction by putting the idle blocks into sleep mode. • This technique is more effective when NOP cycle consumes less than 50% power than regular instruction cycle • Future work includes considering the power of the active cycles and applying voltage reduction when reducing the clock frequency, if the performance penalty can be met. Sheth: MS Thesis

  30. References • P. Lotfi-Kamran, A. Rahmani, A. Salehpour, A. Afzali-Kusha, and Z. Navabi, “Stall Power Reduction in Pipelined Architecture Processors”, in Proc. of 21st International Conference on VLSI Design, 2008, pp.541-546. • K. Najeeb, V. V. R. Konda, S. S. Hari, V. Kamakoti, and V. M. Vedula, “Power Virus Generation Using Behavioral Models of Circuits”, in Proc. 25th IEEE VLSI Test Symposium, 2007, pp.35-40. • B. Yu and M. L. Bushnell, “A Novel Dynamic Power Cut-off Technique (DPCT) for Active Leakage Reduction in Deep Submicron CMOS Circuits”, in Proc. International Symposium On Low Power Electronics and Design, 2006, pp. 214-219. • K. Flautner, N. S. Kim, S. Martin, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, “Drowsy Caches: Simple Techniques for Reducing Leakage Power”, in Proc. International Symposium on Computer Architecture, 2002, pp.148-157. • Z. Hu, A. Buyuktosunoglu, V. Srinivasan, V. Zyuban, H. Jacobson, and P. Bose, “Microarchitectural Techniques for Power Gating of Execution Units”, in International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, 2004, pp. 32-37. • D. Ernst, N. S. Kim, S. Das, S. Pant, R. Rao, T. Pham, C. Ziesler, D. Blaauw,T. Austin, K. Flautner, and T. Mudge, “Razor: A Low-Power Pipeline Based on Circuit-Level Timing Speculation, in Proc. 36th Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture, Dec. 2003, pp. 7-18. Sheth: MS Thesis

  31. Thank You !! Sheth: MS Thesis