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Outcome 1 Revision. Chapters 1, 2, 3. Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology. Definition of Psychology . What is it?. Psychology is the study of mental processes and behaviours in humans. Distinction between psychology and psychiatry.

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outcome 1 revision

Outcome 1 Revision

Chapters 1, 2, 3

distinction between psychology and psychiatry
Distinction between psychology and psychiatry.

What can a psychiatrist do that a psychologists cant? How can the two work together??

different types of psychologists
Different types of psychologists.

Clinical- assessment, diagnosis, treatment of psychological problems.

Sports- mental factors that influence participation in sport.

Forensic- understand the functioning of the legal and criminal justice system.

overt and covert behaviours
Overt and covert behaviours

What are they and what are some examples of each?


Overt Behaviours: behaviours that can be seen (talking, sleeping, running.)

Covert: internal behaviours that cannot be seen (emotions, thinking, remembering)

philosophical roots
Philosophical roots.

Two famous philosophers;

  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • William James
wilhelm wundt
Wilhelm Wundt
  • Founder of experimental psychology
  • Interested in studying the human conscious.
  • In 1879 he opened up his famous laboratory in Leipzig where he and his students conducted original scientific research.
  • He blended philosophical ideas and physiology to create the independent discipline of psychology.
william james
William James
  • James believed that the consciousness does not exist as bits and pieces but flows like a stream. (stream of consciousness)
  • James thought that like a stream, the consciousness (sense of awareness) has the following properties

-it is personal

-it is constantly changing

-it is continuous

-it is selective

-it is active


Chapter: 2

Perspectives and Methods

biological perspective
Biological Perspective
  • Focus on how physiological structures and bodily functions influence our thoughts/ feelings.
  • View humans as biological organisms
    • Paul Broca?
    • Wilder Penfield?
    • Roger Sperry?
behavioural perspective
Behavioural Perspective
  • AKA: the learning perspective. Focuses on learning.
  • Looks at the effect of the environment (external influences) on behaviour.
  • Looks at the relationship between the behaviour (response) and the environmental events (stimuli)
  • John Watson?
  • Ivan Pavlov?
  • B.F Skinner?
cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective
  • Emphasises the effect of mental processes on behaviour.
  • Looks at how humans mentally deal with information they receive from the environment
  • Herman Ebbinghaus?
  • Howard Gardner?
  • Jean Piaget?- he was interested in epistemology (study of origins) and became famous for his theories on how children think and reason. Piaget’s observations of children led to an new philosophy of how thinking develops. He developed a cognitive development theory of children, believing that children pass through 4 separate stages achieving different accomplishments along the way. New reasoning abilities can only be developed after previous ones have occurred (e.g. You need to learn words before you can learn sentences.
socio cultural perspective
Socio-Cultural Perspective
  • This is a combination of two different but related areas of psychology Social psychology and Cultural psychology.
  • Social Psychology: how people think about, interact with, influence and are influenced by the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of others.
  • Cultural Psychology: the ways in which culture can influence people and their lives.
  • Solomon Ash?
  • Stanley Milgriim?
  • Phillip Zimbardo?
one limitations of each perspective
One limitations of each perspective
  • This is on your posters!!!!!!!
  • You all have the RIGHT ANSWERS!!!!
pseudo psychology why psychology is considered a science why astrology is not considered a science
Pseudo-psychology. Why psychology is considered a science, why astrology is not considered a science
  • Pseudoscience is a claim, belief, or practice which is presented as scientific. Pseudoscience is often characterized by the use of vague, exaggerated or unprovable claims
  • They do not adhere to a valid scientific method. Lacks supporting evidence or plausibility, cannot be reliably tested, or otherwise lacks scientific status.
  • Astrology consists of a number of belief systems which hold that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world.
  • Looking at the stars.
  • Barnum Effect: the tendency to agree with statements that are general and vague.

Psychologists use the scientific method which is a controlled approach to planning, conducting and reporting research.

Refer to handout.....

The scientific method involves

  • gathering and interpreting empirical evidence (data/information collected through observation and measurement) This helps psychologists draw conclusions.
  • Reporting the findings.

Chapter 3:

Visual Perception

detecting and focusing light
Detecting and Focusing Light

In order for vision to occur 2 things need to happen:

  • Light needs to travel through the eye and produce a focused image on the retina which is a light sensitive layer of tissue located at the back of the eye.
  • The retina needs to convert this image into a neural impulse which can be sent to the brain to be interpreted.
visual perception process page 88 90
Visual Perception Process.Page 88-90

Refer to text book and handout.

gestalt principles
Gestalt Principles
  • Figure ground
  • Similarity
  • Proximity
  • Closure
difference between sensation and perception
Difference between sensation and perception.
  • Sensation: when your sensory organs detect stimuli from the environment and transmit it to the brain in a form that the brain can understand.
  • Perception: when the stimuli is given meaning as the brain organises and interprets it.
depth perception
Depth Perception

Pictorial Depth Cues

Name the depth cue...

  • Size constancy:

Even though the size of the object changes on the retina it doesn’t mean that the actual size of the object changes.

The size of an image remains

the same and stable even

though the size on the

retina changes.


2) Shape constancy:

Even though the shape of the object changes on the retina, it doesn’t mean that the actual shape of the object is changing.


3) Orientation constancy:

Perceiving an objects true orientation despite changes in the orientation of the object on the retina.

Eg: when you watch TV upside down you don’t believe that the world has turned upside down.

muller lyer illusion
Muller-Lyer Illusion
  • Which line is longer
muller lyer illusion1
Muller-Lyer Illusion

Both lines are of equal length.

It occurs because the eyes look at the wrong spot. They look at the ends rather then the lines.

how different perspective explain visual perception
How different perspective explain Visual Perception.


explains visual perception in terms of the physical structures associated with vision. Does not intend to explain individual difference in perception.



Explains perception in terms of our mental processes to explain the workings of the mind and brain.

Describes visual perception with regards to the way we select, organise and interpret information. The also look at how we apply perceptual principles to see a whole/ complete image.



Explains visual perception according to what is observable. Does not consider mental processes as important when studying visual perception because they cannot be observed. Behaviourists look at methods that can be observed when trying to describe the workings of the mind and perception.


Socio Cultural:

Describes visual perception in terms of how we are influences by society and out culture.

We form an expectation (perceptual set) to see the world in a particular way that is consistent with social and cultural beliefs.