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Costing Low Impact Stormwater Devices. Éva-Terézia Vesely Michael Krausse André Taylor Earl Shaver. Institute for Sustainable Water Resources . Windows of Opportunity for Low Impact Design. Age Distribution. infrastructure inertia. STORMWATER INFRASTRUCTURE. REPLACEMENT.

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costing low impact stormwater devices

Costing Low Impact Stormwater Devices

Éva-Terézia Vesely

Michael Krausse

André Taylor

Earl Shaver

Institute for Sustainable Water Resources

windows of opportunity for low impact design
Windows of Opportunity for Low Impact Design

Age Distribution

infrastructure inertia



lock in effects / path dependency

Typical Lifetime

windows of opportunity

to explore alternative design

assessing alternative design options
Assessing Alternative Design Options

A shift in our approach to stormwater management will be easier accepted if proven necessary and feasibile.


  • Life Cycle Costing
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Cost Benefit Analysis
life cycle costing
Life Cycle Costing

Australian and New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS 4536:1999)

Life cycle costing is the process of assessing the cost of a product over its life cycle or portion thereof.

Life cycle cost is the sum of acquisition and ownership costs of an asset over its life cycle from design stage through manufacturing, use, maintenance and disposal.

life cycle costing5
Life Cycle Costing

Costs and the Phases of the Life Cycle (AS/NZS 4536:1999)

life cycle costing in use
Life Cycle Costing in Use
  • Comparisons
  • Design improvement
  • Cost sharing
  • Budgeting
  • Financial sustainability
estimating the cost elements
Estimating the Cost Elements
  • Analogy method
  • Parametric method
  • Engineering method
  • Cost Accounting method

(Emblemsvåg, J. 2003. Life Cycle Costing: Using Activity Based Costing and Monte Carlo Methods to Manage Future Costs and Risks, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey.)

calculation models
Calculation Models
  • Deterministic – a single value
  • Stochastic – probability distributions
  • Fuzzy – linguistic expressions & fuzzy sets

(Boussabaine, A. and Kirkham, R. 2004. Whole Life Costing: Risk and Risk Responses, Blackwell, Oxford.)

the new zealand experience
The New Zealand Experience


  • Category 1: “Yet to implement”
  • Category 2: “Have some data, but lack resources to extract it”
  • Category 3: “Data available but …"
the arc music initiative
The ARC-MUSIC Initiative

February 2005:

“Life Cycle Costing in the Context of Low Impact Stormwater Design” workshop

New Zealand Life Cycle Costing Project

nz lcc project
NZ LCC Project


  • Draft and refine the data collection protocol
  • Gather costing data
  • Analyse data and define costing relationships
  • Compare the NZ and Australian datasets
  • Code relationships in MUSIC version 4
  • Report findings of the project
  • Launch MUSIC version 4 and conduct training
lcc data collection form
LCC Data Collection Form

The Goal:

to record NZ cost data in a comprehensive and consistent manner.

lcc data collection form13
LCC Data Collection Form
  • The form:
  • consistent with the intent and terminology of the AS/NZS 4536:1999.
  • It covers:
  • Description of the stormwater treatment measure
  • Key design details
  • Cost Elements
  • i.) Acquisition
  • ii.) Routine Maintenance
  • iii.) Corrective Maintenance
  • iv.) Decommissioning
  • D. Document control
lcc data collection form14
LCC Data Collection Form
  • Cost Elements:
  • real cost
  • without GST
  • in the financial year in which they occurred
  • C (conceptual cost), E (engineer’s estimate), A (actual cost)
  • The cost of land is exluded from the acquisition cost
  • (but it is included as a separate question in the form).
  • It explores:
  • - variation of the routine maintenance costs over the first few years
  • - details on corrective maintenance costs
  • - unusual cost elements and circumstances
where to from here
Where to from here?



NZ LCC MODULE in MUSIC version 4



The authors are grateful to stormwater professionals from around New Zealand for sharing their experience.

Further thanks to all those who participated in the ‘LCC in the context of Low Impact Stormwater Design’ workshop and to the ARC for initiating and co-ordinating the NZ LCC project.