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Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Ch.16. Why is energy efficiency an important energy resource? . Improving energy efficiency can save the world at least a 1/3 rd of the energy it uses, and it can save the U.S. up to 43% of the energy it uses. . How do we get our power? .

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why is energy efficiency an important energy resource
Why is energy efficiency an important energy resource?

Improving energy efficiency can save the world at least a 1/3rd of the energy it uses, and it can save the U.S. up to 43% of the energy it uses.

how do we get our power
How do we get our power?

CURRENT MEANS: via centralized power system and existing grid

how do we get our power1
How do we get our power?

FUTURE MEANS: via decentralized power systems and grid revision

- need gov’t aid in upstarting

- Advantages

- Low emissions

- Use local available renewable energy

sources

- Reliable

doing more with less
Doing more with less

Energy Efficiency – Percentage of total energy input into an energy conversion device or system that

  • Does useful work and
  • Is not converted into low-quality heat
importance of improving energy efficiency 84 of energy in us is wasted

Energy Inputs

System

Outputs

Importance of Improving Energy Efficiency84% of energy in US is wasted!

9%

7%

41%

85%

U. S. economy

43%

8%

4%

3%

Nonrenewable fossil fuels

Useful energy

Petrochemicals

Nonrenewable nuclear

Unavoidable energy waste

Hydropower, geothermal, wind, solar

Unnecessary energy waste

Biomass

Fig. 16-2, p. 399

43 unnecessarily wasted
43% unnecessarily wasted

Four widely used devices that waste energy

  • Incandescent light bulb
  • Motor vehicle with internal combustion engine
  • Nuclear power plant
  • Coal-fired power plant

Also: houses & cars

slide8

Energy use of various types of transportation

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

the importance of improving energy efficiency
The Importance of Improving Energy Efficiency
  • Lower Life Cycle Costs
    • Initial cost plus lifetime operating cost
  • Net Energy Efficiency
    • Total amount of useful energy available minus the amount of energy used/wasted
      • Used (1st Law of Thermodynamics)
      • Automatically Wasted (2nd Law of Thermodynamics
      • Unnecessarily wasted (this is what needs to be conserved)
slide11

Uranium

mining

(95%)

Uranium processing

and transportation

(57%)

Power

plant

(31%)

Transmission

of electricity

(85%)

Resistance

heating

(100%)

Uranium

100%

14%

14%

17%

95%

54%

Waste

heat

Waste

heat

Waste

heat

Waste

heat

Electricity from Nuclear Power Plant

Sunlight

100%

90%

Waste

heat

Passive Solar

Energy

Efficiency

could we save energy by recycling energy
Could we save energy by recycling energy?

NO!

- 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

how can we reduce energy waste
How Can We Reduce Energy Waste?

In Our Homes

Industry

Cogeneration

Efficient Electric Motors

Recycling Materials

High Efficiency Lighting (LEDs)

Increased Fuel Economy

  • Insulation
  • Eliminate Air Leaks
  • Clean Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers
how can we reduce energy waste1
How Can We Reduce Energy Waste?

Utility Companies: Switch from promote use to promote energyefficiency

- spurred by state utility commissions

how can we reduce energy waste2
How Can We Reduce Energy Waste?

Smarter Electrical Grid

  • Ultra-high-voltage
  • Super-efficient transmission lines
  • Controlled digitally
  • Responds to local changes in demand/supply
  • Two-way flow of energy & info
  • Smart meters show consumers how much energy each appliance uses
  • U.S cost -- $200-$800 billion; save $100 billion/year
proposed u s smart grid
Proposed U.S. Smart Grid

Figure 20, Supplement 8

how can we reduce energy waste3
How Can We Reduce Energy Waste?

Saving energy in existing buildings

About one-third of the heated air in typical U.S. homes and buildings escapes through closed windows and holes and cracks.

a green roof in chicago
A Green Roof in Chicago

Fig. 16-8, p. 405

slide19

Attic

• Hang reflective foil near

roof to reflect heat.

• Use house fan.

• Be sure attic insulation is

at least 30 centimeters

(12 inches).

Bathroom

• Install water-saving toilets,

faucets, and shower heads.

• Repair water leaks promptly.

Kitchen

• Use microwave rather than

stove or oven as much as

possible.

• Run only full loads in

dishwasher and use low- or

no-heat drying.

• Clean refrigerator coils

regularly.

Basement or utility room

• Use front-loading clothes washer. If possible run only full loads with warm or cold water.

• Hang clothes on racks for drying.

• Run only full loads in clothes dryer and use lower heat setting.

• Set water heater at 140° if dishwasher is used and 120° or lower if no dishwasher is used.

• Use water heater thermal blanket.

• Insulate exposed hot water pipes.

• Regularly clean or replace furnace filters.

Outside

Plant deciduous trees to block

summer sun and let in winter

sunlight.

Other rooms

• Use compact fluorescent

lightbulbs or LEDs and avoid

using incandescent bulbs

wherever possible.

• Turn off lights, computers, TV,

and other electronic devices

when they are not in use.

• Use high efficiency windows;

use insulating window covers

and close them at night and

on sunny, hot days.

• Set thermostat as low as you

can in winter and as high as

you can in summer.

• Weather-strip and caulk doors,

windows, light fixtures, and

wall sockets.

• Keep heating and cooling

vents free of obstructions.

• Keep fireplace damper closed

when not in use.

• Use fans instead of, or along

with, air conditioning.

Stepped Art

Fig. 16-10, p. 407

how can we reduce energy waste4
How Can We Reduce Energy Waste?

Transportation – 28% energy consumption

CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) standards

how can we reduce energy waste5
How Can We Reduce Energy Waste?

Give consumers tax breaks & economic incentives for more fuel efficient vehicles

Example: Feebate

how can we reduce energy waste6
How Can We Reduce Energy Waste?

Types of More Energy-Efficient Vehicles

  • Superefficient & ultra light cars
  • Gasoline-electric hybrid car
  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
  • Energy-efficient diesel car
  • Electric vehicle with a fuel cell
slide23

Conventional hybrid

Fuel tank

Battery

Internal combustion engine

Transmission

Electric motor

Fig. 16-6, p. 403

slide24

Plug-in hybrid

Fuel tank

Battery

Internal combustion engine

Transmission

Electric motor

Fig. 16-6, p. 403

how can we reduce energy waste7
How Can We Reduce Energy Waste?

Transportation

  • Usable & Convenient Mass Transit
  • Electric Rail Systems
  • Biking
why are we still wasting so much energy money
Why are we still wasting so much energy & money? *
  • Energy remains artificially cheap
    • Government subsidies
    • Tax breaks
    • Prices don’t include true cost
why are we still wasting so much energy money1
Why are we still wasting so much energy & money?
  • Few large and long-lasting incentives
    • Tax breaks
    • Rebates
    • Low-interest loans
we can use renewable energy to provide heat and electricity
We Can Use Renewable Energy to Provide Heat and Electricity
  • Renewable energy
    • Solar energy: direct or indirect
    • Geothermal energy
  • Benefits of shifting toward renewable energy
  • Renewable energy cheaper if we eliminate
    • Inequitable subsidies
    • Inaccurate prices
    • Artificially low pricing of nonrenewable energy
what are the advantages disadvantages of different renewable energy options
What Are the Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Renewable Energy Options?

That’s for you to tell us!

shifting to alternative energies
Shifting to Alternative Energies
  • Decreases reliance on foreign oil
  • Increases autonomy
  • Relies on economic and political shift
strategies to assist the shift
Strategies to Assist the Shift
  • Competition in free market without government interference
  • Keeping prices artificailly LOW to encourage use of slected energy resources
  • Keeping prices artifically HIGH to discourabe use of selected energy resources.