Step-by-step guide to prevent falls. Module D - Fall Protection Systems Specifications Part C-1, Chapter 296-155, WAC. If you have already reviewed the Overview Module, click here to jump to the rule requirements. Table of Contents. Sections of the rule What’s in Part C-1?
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Step-by-step guide to prevent falls Module D - Fall Protection Systems Specifications Part C-1, Chapter 296-155, WAC
If you have already reviewed the Overview Module, click here to jump to the rule requirements. Table of Contents Sections of the rule What’s in Part C-1? What’s the rule telling you to DO? Web links to useful documents
Before continuing, print your own copy …of Part C-1; Keep it handy throughout the slideshow, as we will ask you to find specific requirements to make your job safer. Click here to download and print
Sections of the rule • Scope and application • Definitions • General requirements • Fall protection required regardless of height • Fall protection required at 4 feet or more • Fall protection required at 10 feet or more • Fall arrest specifications • Fall restraint specifications • Positioning device system specifications • Other specifications • Training • Appendices A and B non mandatory guidelines
Scope and Application Part C-1 requires employers to provide and enforce the use of fall protection for employees performing activities covered under chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety Standards for Construction.
Fall restraint specifications • “Full body harness” is now being used throughout the rule. • Body belts are no longer allowed as an option for fall restraint. • “Standard guardrail system” is used for consistency throughout the rule.
Read and understand all definitions that apply to your work Affected area is the distance away from the edge of an excavation equal to the depth of the excavation up to a maximum distance of 15ft. For example, an excavation 10 ft. deep has an affected area extending 10 ft. from the edge of any side of the excavation. Catch platform is a type of fall arrest system that consists of a platform installed within four vertical feet of the fall hazard, is at least forty-five inches wide and is equipped with a standard guardrail system on all exposed sides. Equivalent means alternative designs, materials, or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate and will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in this standard. • All definitions are located in WAC 296-155-24603 • Here are a few… Floor hole is an opening measuring less than 12 in. but more than 1 in. in its least dimension in any floor, roof, platform, or surface through which materials but not persons may fall, such as a belt hole, pipe opening, or slot opening. Walking/working surface means any area including, but not limited to, floors, a roof surface, bridge, the ground, and any other surfaces whose dimensions are forty-five inches or more in all directions, through which workers can pass or conduct work. A walking /working surface does not include vehicles or rolling stock on which employees must be located in order to perform their job duties. Floor opening means an opening measuring 12 in. or more in its least dimension in any floor, roof, platform, or surface through which persons may fall. Hazardous slope is a slope where normal footing cannot be maintained without the use of devices due to the pitch of the surface, weather conditions, or surface material. Safety watch system means a fall protection system as described in WAC 296-155-24615(6), in which a competent person monitors one worker who is engaged in repair work or servicing equipment on low pitch roofs only.
Part C-1 covers these trigger heights Fall hazards can occur at any level. There are three threshold levels which have fall hazard concerns and requirements: Wow!! Fall hazards on walking/working surfaces, with open sides, wall openings, ramps, or runways. It also includes work on steep pitch roofs, hazardous slopes, etc. Ooops! Fall hazards when working above or adjacent to dangerous equipment; floor holes/openings into which persons can walk; and impalement hazards. Arghhh!!! Fall hazards during leading edge and roofing work on low pitched surfaces, excavation work, or any other working surface that is not a walking/working surface, such as beams, the sides of structures, etc. 10 feet 0 feet 4 feet
WA State Requires Fall Protection at 4 ft. or more for Construction Exceptions to the 4 ft. rule (Based on certain hazards) Exemptions from the 4 ft. rule (Based on certain activities) Working above or adjacent to dangerous equipment Roofing work & leading edge work on a low pitch surface Employees exposed to these hazards must be protected from falls regardless of height Employees engaged in these activities must be protected from falls of 10’ or more Working on any surface that does not meet the definition of a walking/working surface Floor holes/openings into which persons can accidentally walk Trenching and Excavation (see note below) Impalement hazards Exception: fall protection is not required for persons directly involved in the excavation process (foreman; signal person; employee hooking on pipe or other material; grade person; state, county, or city inspectors; engineer or other professional conducting a QA inspection)
Fall protection trigger heights requirements • Regardless of height is covered in module - A • 4 ft. or more is covered in this module - B • 10 feet or more is covered in module - C • Fall protection systems specifications are presented in this module - D • Other specifications are explained in module - E
What’s the rule telling you to DO? Fall Protection Systems Requirements Have your Part C-1 section available.
Fall Protection Systems Requirements This module covers the specifications for the following systems: • Fall arrest • Fall restraint • Positioning device
Fall Arrest Specifications This section includes: • Personal Fall Arrest—WAC 296-155-24613(1) • Safety Nets—WAC 296-155-24613(2) • Catch Platforms—WAC 296-155-24613(3)
Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS) PFAS means a fall arrest system that is worn by the employee to arrest the employee in a fall from elevation. It consists of an anchor point, connectors, a full body harness, and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these.
PFAS Specifications PFAS shall consist of a full body harness and anchorages capable of supporting (per employee): • 3,000 lbs. when used with a self-retracting lifeline that limits the max. free fall to 2 ft. or less; or a shock absorbing lanyard that restricts the forces on the body to 900 lbs. or less. • 5,000 lbs. for all other PFAS applications including lifelines, lanyards, and components, unless otherwise specified in the standard.
PFAS Specifications When stopping a fall, personal fall arrest systems must: • Be rigged to allow a maximum free fall distance of 6 ft. so an employee will not contact any lower level. • Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1800 lbs.
PFAS Specifications • Safety lines and lanyards must be protected from being cut or abraded. • The attachment point of the full body harness shall be located in the center of the wearer's back near shoulder level, or above the wearer's head.
PFAS Specifications • When vertical lifelines (droplines) are used, not more than one employee shall be attached to any one lifeline. • Horizontal lifelines shall be designed, installed, and used, under the supervision of a qualified person, and must maintain a safety factor of at least 2.
PFAS Specifications Snap hooks shall be a locking type designed and used to prevent disengagement. Unless the snap hook is designed for the following connections, they shall not be engaged: • Directly to the webbing, rope or wire rope; or to each other. • To a D-ring where another snap hook or other connector is attached. • To a horizontal lifeline; or to any object which can cause unintentional disengagement.
Safety Net Systems • Install safety nets as close as practicable under the surface on which employees are working, but no more than 30 ft. below such level unless approved in writing by the manufacturer. • The potential fall area to the net shall be unobstructed. • Remove anything that has fallen into the safety net as soon as possible and at least before the next shift.
Safety Net Systems Safety nets shall extend outward from the outermost projection of the work surface as follows:
Catch Platforms • A catch platform shall be installed within 4 vertical feet of the work area. • The catch platform's width shall be a minimum of 45” wide and shall be equipped with standard guardrails and toe boards on all open sides.
Fall Restraint Specifications This section includes: • Personal Fall Restraint—WAC 296-155-24615(1) • Guardrails—WAC 296-155-24615(2) • Covers—WAC 296-155-24615(3) • Warning Line Systems—WAC 296-155-24615(4) • Safety Monitor—WAC 296-155-24615(5) • Safety Watch—WAC 296-155-24615(6)
Personal Fall Restraint Systems Personal fall restraint systems are worn by employees to keep them from reaching a fall point and consist of: • Full body harness attached to securely rigged restraint lines. • Hardware assemblies capable of withstanding 4,000 lb. tension loads. • All components must be compatible. • Anchorage points must be capable of supporting 4 times the intended load. • Rope grab devices are prohibited.
Standard Guardrail Specifications • A standard guardrail system is a type of fall restraint system that is a vertical barrier consisting of a top rail, mid rail, posts, and toe board. • Guardrail systems can be constructed of wood, pipe, steel, or wire rope. Specifications for each type can be located in WAC 296-155-24615(2).
Standard Guardrail Specifications • The height of a standard guardrail is 39” – 45”. • The top rail must be capable of supporting 200 lbs. applied in any direction. • Posts must be spaced no more than 8 ft. apart. • Wire rope railings must be flagged with high-visibility material spaced no more than 6 ft. apart.
Railings Receiving Heavy Stresses Railings receiving heavy stresses from employees trucking or handling materials must be provided additional strength by the use of heavier stock, closer spacing of posts, bracing, or by other means.
Toe Board Specifications Toe boards when used as falling object protection must meet these requirements: • Minimum 4” nominal in vertical height. • Fastened securely. • No more than ¼” clearance above floor level. • Use paneling or screening for additional protection, if needed.
Cover Specifications Covers must be: • Able to support at least 200 lbs. with a safety factor of four. • Secured to prevent displacement. • Color coded or marked with the word “Cover” or “Hole.”
Warning Line Systems • Warning lines are only allowed on low pitched surfaces (4:12 or less). They must be erected around all unprotected sides and edges of the work area. • For activities other than roofing work or leading edge work, warning lines must be erected no less than 15 ft. from unprotected sides.
Warning Lines for Roofing Work • When mechanical equipment is not being used, warning lines must be no less than 6 ft. from the roof’s edge. • When mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line must be at least 6 ft. from the roof’s edge along the direction that the mechanical equipment is being operated, and at least 10 ft. back from the ends toward which the machine is traveling.
Warning Lines for Leading Edge Work • Employees engaged in leading edge work must be separated from other work areas on low pitched surfaces using a warning line. • Erect warning lines no less than 6 ft. and no more than 25 ft. from the leading edge and implement a fall protection system while working between the warning line and the leading edge.
Warning Lines Specifications Warning line systems shall consist of a rope, wire, chain, or caution tape and supporting stanchionserected as follows: • Flagged no more than every 6 ft. with high visibility material. • No higher than 45” from the surface and can not sag below 36”. • Stanchions shall be capable of resisting a force of at least 16 lbs. without tipping over. • The warning line must have a tensile strength of at least 200 lbs.
Caution or Danger Tape Used as a Warning Line • Must be highly visible. • Must be at least 3” wide and 3 mils thick. • Must have tensile strength of at least 200 lbs. • If using caution or danger tape, the warning line does not have to be flagged.
Warning Line Access Paths Access paths shall be erected as follows: • Points of access, materials handling areas, and storage areas shall be connected to the work area by a clear access path formed by two warning lines. • Bar access to unused paths with a rope, wire, or chain that is equal in strength and height to the warning line and intersects the warning line erected around the work area.
Safety Monitor System (SMS) Specifications • SMS’s can be used with a warning line system as a method of fall protection only during low pitched roofing or leading edge work. • The warning line is not required when performing roofing work on low pitched roofs less than 50 ft. wide.
SMS Requirements • Do not use the SMS during adverse weather conditions. • Employees working between the warning line and the unprotected sides or edges must be readily distinguishable from those employees working inside the warning line system by wearing highly visible, distinctive, and uniform apparel. • Employees must promptly comply with fall hazard warnings from the safety monitor.
Safety Monitor Duties • Meet definition of a competent person and have control authority over the work as it relates to fall protection. • Be distinguishable over members of the work crew. • Perform no other duties while acting as the safety monitor. • Keep clear view and normal voice contact with workers. • Supervise no more than eight workers and warn employee’s of pending fall hazards.
Safety Watch System Specifications Safety Watch System means a fall protection system in which a competent person monitors one worker who is engaged in repair work or servicing equipment on low pitched roofs only.
Safety Watch System Requirements • There can only be 2 people on the roof: one acts as safety watch while the other does the work. • The employee doing the work must comply promptly with fall hazard warnings from the safety watch. • Mechanical equipment is prohibited. • Do not use system in adverse weather conditions.
Safety Watch Duties • Meets definition of competent person. • Has full control over the work as it relates to fall protection. • Keep clear view and normal voice contact with worker. • Performs no other duties while acting as the safety watch.
Positioning Device Systems • Positioning harnesses or full body harnesses shall be used. • Must be rigged to prevent an employee from a free fall greater than 2 ft. • Secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall or 3,000 lbs., whichever is greater.
Positioning Device Systems Snap hooks shall be a locking type designed and used to prevent disengagement. Unless the snap hook is designed for the following connections, they shall not be engaged: • Directly to the webbing, rope or wire rope; or to each other. • To a D-ring where another snap hook or other connector is attached. • To a horizontal lifeline; or to any object which can cause unintentional disengagement.
Click on any of these useful web links • Safety standards for construction work • Fall Protection Part C-1 • Accident prevention program • Click on the page … • Worksite housekeeping • Click on the page… • Fall Protection Basics publication • Fall Protection Work Plan Template
To view other Fall Protection modules, click on any link below: Module A – Overview of Part C-1 Module B – Fall protection required at 4 feet or more Module C – Fall protection required at 10 feet or more Module D – Fall protection systems specifications Module E – Other specifications