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The Male Reproductive System

The Male Reproductive System

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The Male Reproductive System

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  1. The Male Reproductive System Reproduction: One of the essential functions of living organisms Results from the union of 2 specialized sex cells, one from each, the male and female Structure & function of the male reproductive system Includes both internal & external organs 2 main biological functions of male reproduction Production and storage of sperm(male reproductive cells) Transfer sperm into female’s body

  2. Structure & function of the male reproductive system • Puberty: • Rapid growth & sexual maturity period-(between ages 12-15) • Reproduction system becomes fully functional • Hypothalamus: • Begins puberty • Regulates pituitary gland secretions • Pituitary Gland: • Releases hormones to stimulate production of testosterone • Testosterone: • Initiates physical changes (secondary sex characteristics) • Broadening of shoulders Bigger muscles • Facial/body hair Deepening of voice • Causes production of sperm( capable of producing sperm for the rest of his life)

  3. External Male reproductive organs • Testes: • Small glands that produce sperm • Scrotum: • Sac that holds testes outside the body • Protects sperm by keeping testes at a temperature below normal body temp • Sperm production requires a lower temp (heat sensitive) • About 5 degrees below normal body temp • Tight clothing can interfere with sperm production • Penis: • Male sex organ • Spongy erectile tissue with many blood vessels

  4. External Male reproductive organs • Penis: (continued) • AnErectionis caused by increased blood flow to the penis • During Ejaculation, muscular contractions occur causing semen to be emitted • Semen- contains sperm & other secretions from reproduction organ • Nocturnal emissions- when a male begins to produce sperm, he may experience ejaculations when sperm is released during sleep • Circumcision- Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis • 55-65% of newborns in the US • 20% worldwide • Performed for cultural, religious, my genetic reasons • Performed usually during first 10 days (often 48 hours after birth)

  5. Internal male reproductive organs • Play a role in the delivery of sperm • Epididymus: Temporary storage of sperm • Sperm mature there • Located on the outer surface of the testes • Vas Deferens: pair of connecting tubes that extend from the epididymus to the urethra • In the urethra, sperm mix with fluids from 3 other internal sex organs to produce seminal fluid (protects & nourishes sperm) • Seminal Vesicles:provides a nourishing fluid • Prostate Gland & Cowper’s Gland • Neutralizes acidic environment of females vagina • Acts as a lubricant for sperm as it goes through the urethra • Urethra: Passage way through which both semen and urine leave the body

  6. During Ejaculation • 20- 150 million sperm are released • Most are killed by acidic environment of the vagina • Only about 50-1000 sperm will actually reach the egg • However, men that have a low sperm count-below 20 million released • Sperm make up only 10% of semen • 90% is fluid secreted by the 3 glands

  7. Care of the male reproductive system • Regular check ups • Bath regularly • Protective equipment during PA or sports • Self examinations monthly • Abstinence is the key

  8. Problems with the male reproductive system • Organs of the reproductive system can be affected by functional and/or structural problems • STD’s • Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis (bacterial) • Genital Herpes: Viral • HPV: Viral • If left untreated, all can damage internal organs and certain types lead to cancer of the anus and penis

  9. Problems with the male reproductive system • Hernia: when part of and organ pushes through an opening of a membrane or muscle that contains an organ • Usually part of the intestines is pushed through the muscle near the scortum • Sterility: Condition where a person is unable to reproduce • Result of too few sperm • Environmental hazards (radiation, chemical exposure, smoking, STD complications, temp change exposure to x-rays) • Enlarged Prostate: Surrounds urethra • Can enlarge because of: infection, tumor, old age • Squeezes urethra resulting in frequent or difficult urination • Cancer of the prostate: Early detection is very important • Often site for older males • Only a doctor can diagnose prostate cancer • Cancer of the testes: • Usually slight enlargement • No pain or dull ache • Hard lumps • Can be cured 90% of the time if caught early