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IP Mobility Management 핵심 기술 및 최신 표준 동향 PowerPoint Presentation
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IP Mobility Management 핵심 기술 및 최신 표준 동향

IP Mobility Management 핵심 기술 및 최신 표준 동향

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IP Mobility Management 핵심 기술 및 최신 표준 동향

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  1. IP Mobility Management 핵심 기술 및 최신 표준 동향 Youn-Hee Han yhhan@kut.ac.kr Korea University of Technology and EducationLaboratory of Intelligent Networks http://link.kut.ac.kr 2009.06 2009 모바일 멀티미디어 서비스를 위한 최신 네트워크 기술

  2. Outline • IP Mobility - Why and What • Mobile IPv4/IPv6 (RFC 3344/3775) • IP Handover Optimization • Network-based Mobility Support • Network-based Mobility Optimization & Future Research Issues

  3. IP Mobility - Why and What

  4. IP’s Routing Model • Addresses are assigned in a topologically significant manner • Routing based on address prefixes • MN(Mobile Node) must be assigned a new address when it moves Router 163.152.39.12 163.152.39.11 Internet 163.152.39.10 163.152.39.10 Router 220.68.82.12 220.68.82.11

  5. IP Session Continuity • TCP connections are defined by… • [Source IP, Source Port, Destination IP, Destination Port] • MN’s address must be preserved regardless of its location to preserve the on-going IP session. • Therefore, when an MN moves, • Retain the MN address → Routing fails • Change the MN address → IP Session breaks Router Internet 163.152.39.10 220.68.82.10 39.10.10.5 Router

  6. Solutions : Two-tier IP addressing • MN keeps its static IP address, but uses a temporary a CoA(care-of address) when it moves to another subnet Router Internet 163.152.39.10 163.152.39.10 39.10.10.5 Router 220.68.82.10 HoA (Home Address) – the original static IP address – 163.152.39.10 CoA (Care-of Address) – the temporary IP address – 220.68.82.10

  7. Why Network-layer Mobility? • Transport Layer/ Application Layer transparency • Mobility management is related with addressing

  8. Backbone Network Routing Micro Mobility Zone ACR - 1 ACR - 2 ( Anchor ) IP Cloud for L 2 Mobility L 2 p E E x x t e t a n t e d n RAS3 e h d d RAS2 L e 2 d p a RAS1 L t h 2 p a t RAS2 h RAS3 RAS1 Subnet - 1 Subnet - 2 MSS MSS MSS MSS WhyIP Mobility? • IP Mobility가 필요한가? • 단말기로 단순한 웹브라우징만 한다면 IP Mobility 기능이 필요 없음 • 만약 Session 시간 유지가 길지 않은 Application만 단말기에 사용한다면IPMobility를 완벽하게 구현하지 않고 단순하게 Path Extension 기능만 있어도 됨. • Host-based routing • 짧은 Session 시간 동안 IP Address 유지 • Session이 끊긴 이후에 새로운네트워크에 있다면 새로운IP Address 재할당 • 현재 상용 WiBro 에서 사용하는 IP Mobility 정책 • 그러나, Session 유지 기간 및 이동성 정도에 따라 IP Mobility에 대한 중요도가 높아짐.

  9. The world of IPv6 Mobile telephone Data-compatible home appliances Settlement \ \ Broadcasting Data car IPv6 Map information Vending machines Image Server DRINK \ \ Music WhyIP Mobility? • IP Mobility가 필요한가? • 단말기도 일종의 서버가 될 수 있다고 생각한다면 IP Mobility 필요성은 매우 높음 • 단말기들 사이의 Peer-to-Peer 서비스를 효율적으로 제공해야 한다면 IP Mobility는반드시 필요 • IP Session을 사람의 개입 없이 기계들 끼리 자동으로 생성한다면… 그리고 그 기계들이 움직인다면…?

  10. VHO and IP Mobility • Horizontal Handover using one interface • Intra-cell Handover -  • Inter-cell Handover • Inter-PHY/MAC Attachment Points -  • Inter-PHY/MAC Attachment Points/Layer 3 Network -  • Vertical Handover using multi-interfaces • Inter-cell (Heterogeneous Cell) Handover • Inter-PHY/MAC Attachment Points - ④ • Inter-PHY/MAC Attachment Points/Layer 3 Network - ⑤ 802.16/WiBro HSDPA 802.11/WLAN IP Access Network Handover requiring IP handover:    HSDPA (or LTE) 802.16 802.16 802.11 802.16  ⑤   ④

  11. IP address and VHO Session Continuity • Conflict Relation in VHO • IP session continuity implies IP address preservation. • Multi-interfaces configures its individual IP address. • IP Mobility resolves the conflict!!! • Two-tier IP Addressing strategy resolves the conflict • For session continuity, HoA is used. • For temporal locator, CoA is used at each interface. • A new CoA (not HoA) is configured to terminal’s new interface after movement • Each interface configures and manages its own CoA

  12. Mobile IPv4/IPv6 (RFC 3344/3775)

  13. Mobile IPv4 • IETF Standard Documents • RFC 3344 (IP Mobility Support for IPv4), Aug. 2002 • draft-ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis-07.txt (IP Mobility Support for IPv4, revised), Oct. 2008 • Major Component • HA – Home Agent • FA – Foreign Agent (usually in Router) • MN – Mobile Node • New Signal Message related with Registration Management • Agent Discovery • Agent Solicitation/Agent Advertisement (ICMP Messages) • It makes use of the existing Router Advertisement/Solicitation messages defined for ICMP Router Discovery (RFC 1256). • Registration • Registration Request/Registration Reply (UDP Messages)

  14. Mobile IPv4 Operation Mobile IPv4 Operation CN MN • Basic Operation of Mobile IPv4 CN CN MN 0) MN in Home Network MN has only HoA Normal routing 1) AgentSolicitation(ICMP) 2) Agent Advertisement(ICMP) MN in Foreign Network move 3) MN obtains a new CoA (FA-CoA)

  15. Mobile IPv4 Operation Mobile IPv4 Operation Basic Operation of Mobile IPv4 CN Registration Table 2) RegistrationRequest(UDP) HoA CoA Normal routing 3) Registration Reply(UDP) 1) Registration Request(UDP) 4) Registration Reply(UDP)

  16. Mobile IPv4 Operation Mobile IPv4 Operation Basic Operation of Mobile IPv4 CN (HA) CN Registration Table HoA CoA (FA) (HA) (FA) MN

  17. Mobile IPv4 Operation Mobile IPv4 Operation Basic Operation of Mobile IPv4 CN Registration Table HoA CoA CN MN

  18. Mobile IPv4 Features • Triangle Routing • CN  HA  MN, MN  CN • It deteriorates service of quality • MIP4 Route optimization • Not yet standardized • Some research-level papers • Two CoA Modes • FA-CoA • MNs receive a CoA from FA • No duplication about new CoA • Co-located CoA • DHCP-based CoA allocation • DHCP server should guarantee the uniqueness of CoA • FA-CoA is preferred because of the depletion of the IPv4 address space

  19. Why IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 IPv6… Why IPv6? • Infinite Address Space • 128 bits address • Autoconfiguration Service • IP address auto-configuration without DHCP • Efficient Routing • Managed prefix allocation • The number of routing entry will be reduced at routers • Perfect peer-to-peering • Built-in Security • Efficient Mobility

  20. Why IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 Mobile IPv6 • RFC 3775, Mobility Support in IPv6, June 2004 • D. Johnson (Rice Univ.), C. Perkins (Nokia), J. Arkko (Ericsson) • It takes almost 4 years to make it RFC. • draft-ietf-mext-rfc3775bis-03.txt (March 9, 2009) • Major Components • HA • MN • (no FA) • From implementation’s viewpoint… • MIPv6 is a pure network-layer protocol, while MIPv4 is an application and network-layer protocol.

  21. Why IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 New Message and Options of Mobile IPv6 • New Signal Message related with Binging Management • Binding Update (BU) • Binding Acknowledgement (BAck) • Binding Refresh Request (BRR) • Binding Error (BE) • New Signal Message related with Binding Authentication • Home Test Init (HoTI) • Care-of Test Init (CoTI) • Home Test (HoT) • Care-of Test (CoT) • New Destination Option • Home Address Destination Option • New Routing Header Type • Routing Header Type 2

  22. Mobile IPv6 Operation • MN at Home Network  Move  Movement Detection CN MN CN CN MN Internet Home N/W Foreign N/W AR AR HA Router Solicitation afterlink-up trigger Router Advertisement 0) MN at Home Network MN gets HoA (Home Address) 1) MN gets Router Advertisement message 2) MN detects its Layer 3 Movements

  23. Mobile IPv6 Operation • Location Registration CN Binding Cache HoA CoA Internet Home N/W Foreign N/W 4) MN sends a BU AR AR HA 5) HA acknowledges by returning BAck to MN 6) HA setups Proxy Neighbor Cache for intercepting packets destined for MN 3) MN configures New CoA after executing Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)

  24. Mobile IPv6 Operation • Packet Tunneling (HA) MN CN CN (HA) (HA) MN CN (HA) Internet Home N/W Foreign N/W AR AR HA MN 7) HA intercepts packets with HoA as its destination address 9) Decapsulate the packet 8) HA sends encapsulated packets to MN’s CoA inbound MN MN 10) Looping Back MN MN outbound

  25. Mobile IPv6 Operation • Return Routability with CN 5) CN generates ‘binding management key’ CN 4) MN sends CoTI to CN directly Internet Home N/W Foreign N/W AR AR HA 3) MN sends HoTI to CN via HA MN 1) MN guesses that the CN has no Binding Cache for me2) MN executes Return Routability

  26. Mobile IPv6 Operation • Return Routability with CN 10) MN sends BU with binding authorization data 11) CN need not return BAck Binding Cache CN HoA CoA 7) CN sends CoT to MN directly Internet Home N/W Foreign N/W AR AR HA 6) CN sends HoT to MN via HA MN 8) MN generates ‘binding management key’ 9) MN computes binding authorization data (signature) for BU message

  27. Mobile IPv6 Operation • Route optimization after BU with CN 12) CN directly sends packets to MN’s CoA by using Routing header type 2 CN CN MN Internet Home N/W Foreign N/W AR AR HA MN 13) MN directly sends packets to CN’ by using Home Address Destination option CN MN

  28. Why IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 Mobile IPv6 Operation • When the binding’s lifetime of CN is near expiration 1) CN guesses that it is actively communicating with the MN and has indications, such as an open TCP connection to the MN 2) CN sends a BRR to the MN CN Internet Home N/W Foreign N/W AR AR HA MN 3) MN replies by returning a BU to the CN

  29. Mobile IPv6 Features Why IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 • How to make CoA? • Auto-configuration • Without DHCP (Preferred) • With DHCP • Duplication Address Detection (DAD) is required. • Triangle routing avoided, but non-optimal routing is default • Route optimization supported • But, CN is required to be modified for the route optimization • Security • MN  HA : Strong Security (IPSec) • MN  CN : Weak Security (Return Routability) • Handover latency increased

  30. Handover Latency of Mobile IPv6 Why IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 L2 handover RR & BU MD DAD Standard MIPv6 (Reactive) time Up to about 2.5 seconds • Latency Components • MD (Movement Detection) Latency • How to get “Router Advertisement” fast? • DAD (Duplicate Address Detection) Latency • Constant time (1 sec.) • How to shorten the constant time? • BU (Binding Update) Latency • It depends on the distance between MN and HA/CN • Mobile IPv6 is not a handover protocol, rather it is a location (and route) update and session continuity protocol.

  31. IP Handover Optimization

  32. Optimization of Each Phase • 각 IP Handover 단계별 최적화 기술 (1/3) • Movement Detection (MD) Latency 최소화 • Fast Router Advertisement(FRA) • draft-mkhalil-ipv6-fastra-05.txt • Fast Router Discovery(FRD) • draft-ietf-dna-frd-02.txt [FRA] AR AR AR RA [FRD] AP/BS RA AP/BS Link-specific Handover& AAA RS RA AP/BS Link-specific Handover& AAA RA MN Link-specific Handover& AAA Link-Up & Layer 3 (and above) Communication Ready MN receives RA & discovers new subnet. MN MN How Long?

  33. Optimization of Each Phase • 각 IP Handover 단계별 최적화 기술 (2/3) • DAD Latency 최소화 • Optimistic Duplicate Address Detection (oDAD) – RFC 4429 (Aprial, 2006) • Advance Duplicate Address Detection (aDAD) • Y.-H. Han and S.-H. Hwang, "Care-of Address Provisioning for Efficient IPv6 Mobility Support", Elsevier Computer Communications, Vol.29, No.9, pp.1422-1432, 2006. AR AP/BS RS RA NS BU to Home Agent Link-specific Handover& AAA MN Link-Up MN receivesRA Timeout (1 sec.) [oDAD와 aDAD를 통한 DAD 시간 제거]

  34. Optimization of Each Phase • 각 IP Handover 단계별 최적화 기술 (3/3) • Binding Update Latency 최소화 • Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) - RFC 4140 (August, 2005) • [Standard MIPv6 (RFC 3775)] • [Optimized MIPv6] • MD Optimization • RS+RA (RFC 3775 Optional) • FRA (IETF Proposal), FRD (IETF Proposal) • DAD Optimization • oDAD (RFC 4429) • aDAD (A paper, IETF Proposal) • BU Optimization • HMIPv6 (RFC 4140) L2 handover BU MD DAD time Layer 2+3 Latency MD+DAD+BU L2 handover time Layer 2+3 Latency

  35. Optimization of The Whole Procedure • IP Handover 전체 단계에 대한 최적화 기술 (1/3) • Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) - RFC 4068 (July 2005) • Predictive (Preferred) & Reactive • MD와 DAD 과정을 Layer 2 핸드오버 전에 수행 • 라우터 간 터널링 MN PAR NAR L2 trigger RtSolPr PrRtAdv HI FBU HACK FBACK FBACK • New 4 ICMPv6 Messages • - Router Solicitation for Proxy (RtSolPr) • - Proxy Router Advertisement (PrRtAdv) • - Handover Initiate (HI) • Handover Acknowledge (HACK) • New 3 Mobility Messages • - Fast Binding Update (FBU) • - Fast Binding Acknowledgment (FBACK) • - Fast Neighbor Advertisement (FNA) Disconnect forward packets Connect FNA deliver packets

  36. Optimization of The Whole Procedure • IP Handover 전체 단계에 대한 최적화 기술 (2/3) • Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) - RFC 4068 (July 2005) • 각 네트워크별 Layer 2 프로토콜과의 교차 계층 최적화 • Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers for 802.11 Networks - RFC 4260 (Nov. 2005) • Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers over IEEE 802.16e Networks - RFC 5270 (June 2008) • Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers for 3G CDMA Networks - RFC 5271 (June 2008) Layer3(FMIPv6) Cross-layering Layer2(WiMAX/WiBro)

  37. Optimization of The Whole Procedure • IP Handover 전체 단계에 대한 최적화 기술 (3/3) • Fast Reactive Scheme • Y.-H. Han, J.-H. Choi, and S.-H. Hwang, "Reactive Handover Optimization in IPv6-Based Mobile Networks," IEEE JSAC, pp.1758- 1772, September 2006 • Combined MD and DAD • AR sends a unicast RA message with a unique CoAdirectly to MN when the MN makes a connection witha new AP. • Network-based BU

  38. Handover Latency Comparison L2 handover BU MD DAD [Standard MIPv6 (RFC 3775)] [Optimized MIPv6] [Fast Reactive Handover Opti.] [FMIPv6] time Layer 2+3 Latency Optimized MD, DAD, and BU L2 handover time Layer 2+3 Latency Combined MD&DAD + Network-based BU L2 handover time Layer 2+3 Latency RtSolPrPrRtAdv FBU, HI, HAck, FBAck Tunneling MD BU+DAD FNA time Layer 2+3 Latency

  39. Network-based Mobility Support

  40. Proxy Mobile IPv6 • Proxy Mobile IPv6 [IETF RFC 5213, August 2008] LMA: Localized Mobility AgentMAG: Mobile Access Gateway IP Tunnel IP-in-IP tunnel between LMA and MAG LMA Home Network MN’s Home Network (Topological Anchor Point) MAG LMA Address (LMAA) That will be the tunnel entry-point LMM (Localized Mobility Management)Domain MAG movement Proxy Binding Update/Ack. (PBU/PBA) Control messages exchanged by MAG to LMA to establish a binding between MN-HoA and Proxy-CoA MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP) CAFE:2:/64 MN’ Home Address (MN-HoA) MN continues to use it as long as it roams within a same domain Proxy Care of Address (Proxy-CoA) The address of MAG That will be the tunnel end-point

  41. PMIPv6 Operation Flow PBU: Proxy Binding UpdatePBA: Proxy Binding Ack. • RA*: MN의 Prefix를 Policy Store에서 수신한 경우의 Router Advertisement • RA**: MN의 Prefix를 LMA에서 수신한 경우의 Router Advertisement MN MAG AAA&Policy Store LMA CN MN Attachment AAA Query with MN-ID AAA Reply with Profile RA* PBU with MN-ID, Home Network Prefix option, Timestamp option PBA with MN-ID, Home Network Prefix option RA** Tunnel Setup Optional DHCP Server DHCP Request DHCP Request DHCP Response DHCP Response [MN-HoA:CN](data) [Proxy-CoA:LMAA][MN-HoA:CN](data) [MN-HoA:CN](data)

  42. PMIPv6 Features • Home in Any Place • MAG sends the RA (Router Advertisement) messages advertising MN’s home network prefix and other parameters • MAG will emulate the home link on its access link. • RA Unicast • RA should be UNICASTed to an MN • It will contain MN’s Home Network Prefix • Per-MN Prefix • Any MN is just a IPv6 host • Any MN is just a IPv6 host with its protocol operation consistent with the base IPv6 specification. • M:1 Tunnel • LMA-MAG tunnel is a shared tunnel among many MNs. • One tunnel is associated to multiple MNs’ Binding Caches.

  43. DNS HA or LMA NMS IP Network Internet AAA/Policy Store E R E R ACR/MAG L2 Switch BS/RAS PSS ACR ACR PMIPv6 over WiMAX/WiBro • Proxy Mobile IPv6 over WiBro TTA 단체표준, “와이브로에서의 프록시 모바일 IPv6 적용,”TTAK.KO-10.0284, Dec. 2008 PreviousMAG PreviousMAG

  44. PMIPv6 in 3GPP LTE/EPC Proxy Mobile IPv6 over LTE AAA/Policy Server Ref.] I. Guardini et al., “Mobile IPv6 deployment opportunities in next generation 3GPP networks,” 16th IST Mobile&Wireless Communication Summit, Budapest, Hungary 1-5, July 2007 GTP-U Tunnel IP-in-IP Tunnel UE eNodeB S-GW/(MAG) P-GW/LMA P-GW: access gateway towards Packet Data Networks (similar to the GGSN) Optional! - PMIPv6 will be mainly used for inter-system handovers (i.e. handovers between 3GPP and non-3GPP accesses)

  45. PMIPv6 in 3GPP LTE/EPC • Proxy Mobile IPv6 over LTE • Vertical handover scenario LMA LMA

  46. WiBro IP Network Cellular IP network DS(Dual Stack)-PMIPv6 • Standard Documents • IPv4 Support for Proxy Mobile IPv6 (DS-PMIPv6) • draft-ietf-netlmm-pmip6-ipv4-support-12.txt (April 2009) • IPv4 Transport 지원 + IPv4 Home Address Mobility 지원 • DS-PMIPv6가 고려하는 시나리오 IPv4 Application(VoD, IP-Phone…) RAS DSMIPv6HA DSMIPv6MN IPv4 IPv4 LTE BS IPv6 IPv6 WLANIP Network NAT AAA Private IPv4 WLAN AP IPv6 Application(VoD, IP-Phone…)

  47. DS(Dual Stack)-PMIPv6 • PMIPv6’s Dual-Stack Support [Mobility Binding] HoAv4 and HoAv6 PBU (HoAv6, Proxy CoAv6, HoAv4) Proxy CoAv6 Dual Stack MNor IPv4 MN IPv4 traffic CNv4  HoAv4 IPv6 Tunnel (LMAAv6Proxy CoAv6) IPv6 traffic CNv6->HoAv6 Dual Stack MAG Only-IPv6 enabled (Proxy CoAv6) Dual Stack LMA Only-IPv6 enabled (LMMAv6) <MN in IPv6 domain> [Mobility Binding] HoAv4 and HoAv6 PBU (HoAv6, Proxy CoAv4, HoAv4) Dual Stack MNor IPv4 MN Proxy CoAv4 IPv4 traffic CNv4  HoAv4 IPv4 Tunnel (LMAAv4Proxy CoAv4) IPv6 traffic CNv6->HoAv6 Dual Stack MAG Only-IPv4 enabled (Proxy CoAv4) Dual Stack LMA Only-IPv4 enabled (LMAAv4) <MN in IPv4 domain>

  48. DS(Dual Stack)-PMIPv6 • MAG와 LMA 사이의 시그널링 및 터널 설정 LMA (바인딩 관리: IPv6 HoA & IPv4 HoA  IPv4 or IPv6 Proxy-CoA ) IPv4-UDP-IPv6-PBU IPv4-UDP-IPv6-PBU IPv6-PBU IPv6-PBAck IPv4-UDP-IPv6-PBAck IPv4-UDP-IPv6-PBAck NAT 6-in-6Tunnel 4-in-6Tunnel 6-in-4Tunnel 4-in-4Tunnel 6-in-udp-in-4Tunnel 4-in-udp-in-4Tunnel MAG MAG MAG MN 이 IPv6 네트워크로 이동할 때 MN 이 IPv4 네트워크로 이동할 때 MN 이 PrivateIPv4 네트워크로 이동할 때

  49. DS-PMIPv6 테스트베드-1 v4/v6 VoD Server CN eth1) 192.168.2.1 3ffe:2::1/64 ETRI (2007,2008) LMA V4/V6 network MN has Dual Stack and both addresses are always enabled eth0) 192.168.2.2 3ffe:2::2/64 LMA가 MN에게 할당할 Prefix Pool 3ffe:1:3:1::/64 ~ 3ffe:1:3:ffff::/64 eth0) 192.168.1.1 3ffe:1::1/64 NAT 192.168.1.3 Private V4 network V6 network eth0) 10.0.0.1 MAG3 V4 network eth0) 3ffe:1::2/64 MAG1 eth0) 192.168.1.2 MAG2 ra0) 10.0.1.1 3ffe:1:3::1/64 fe80::1 ra0) 192.168.101.1 3ffe:1:1::1/64 fe80::1 ra0) 192.168.102.1 3ffe:1:2::1/64 fe80::1 SSID: PMIP3 SSID: PMIP1 SSID: PMIP2 초기 실행: v4 VoD Client 초기 실행: v6 VoD Client

  50. Subnet 4 VoD (PC4) 192.168.4.1 192.168.4.2 LMA (PC0) 192.168.3.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.3.2 192.168.1.2 802.11g 802.11a NAT2 NAT1 10.0.1.1 10.0.2.1 10.0.1.1 10.0.1.2 10.0.2.2 10.0.1.2 Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Subnet 3 MAG1 (PC1) MAG2 (PC2) MAG3 (PC3) 10.0.101.1 10.0.102.1 10.0.101.1 192.168.5.1 192.168.5.2 192.168.5.1 192.168.5.1 Notebook1 Notebook1 Notebook2 Notebook1 DS-PMIPv6 테스트베드-2 KT (2007): DS-PMIPv6 with Only Private IPv4 Network and IPv4 Application