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a. FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750). Eng Rev-> triumph of?. a. FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750). Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96). New tech. dev. In Britain? . a.

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slide2

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Eng Rev-> triumph of?

slide3

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

New tech. dev. In Britain?

slide4

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Another important development?

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

slide5

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Its importance?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

slide6

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Transporting goods?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

slide7

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

slide9

Britain engaged in extensive canal building in the late 1700s and early 1800s. Particularly impressive were aqueducts, such as the Barton, Chirk, and Pontcysyllte canals that carried cargo on boats over other rivers.

Left: The Barton Aqueduct, built in 1769, and the Chirk Aqueduct, painted in 1802 by John Sell Cotman.

slide11

One figure that highlights the importance of water transport throughout history is that an animal can pull twenty-five times as much weight on the towpath of a canal than it can pull in a wagon on a paved road. Therefore, when the “Canal mania” that swept across Britain in the late 1700s and early 1800s reached America, it helped fulfill an even greater need for cheap transportation for bulk goods over long distances.

slide12

The most important canal of the era was the 363-mile long Erie Canal, which connected Albany, New York on the Hudson River with Buffalo on Lake Erie. Also derided by its opponents as “Clinton’s Big Ditch” after New York Governor DeWitt Clinton who was the main driving force behind it, building the canal faced numerous engineering challenges, notably constructing eighteen aqueducts and eighty-three locks to deal with a differential in elevation of 675 feet. Although using Lake Ontario for part of its length would have been easier and cheaper, there were fears that this could be used as an invasion route from Canada and that it might also divert trade from New York City to Montreal.

slide13

Construction began in 1817 on July 4 (of course) and was completed in an astonishing (for that time) eight years. The first and easiest part constructed was a flat 94-mile section in the middle section of its route that could charge tolls on local traffic to help pay for the rest of the construction.

slide14

The timing of the canal’s construction was especially fortunate after the Crash of 1819, providing employment from public funds for many people and local contractors who would otherwise have been out of work.

slide15

To those in the U.S., the Erie Canal was the wonder of the age and epitomized the spirit of American hard work and ingenuity. For its opening in 1825, Governor Clinton took a barrel of water from Lake Erie and dumped it in New York Harbor. Cannons, placed within hearing distance of each other along the whole route of the canal, fired shots in sequence from one end to the other and back again, taking about three hours to complete the circuit.

slide16

In the 1820s, the Erie Canal was extended by way of Ohio’s rivers from Cleveland to the Ohio River in what is known as the Ohio and Erie Canal. As a result, someone could sail directly from New York City to New Orleans and back again on a steamboat.

slide17

Canal mania spread to America in the early 1800s. While the best-known canal was the Erie Canal, There were plenty of other canals being built in America. One of these was a system of canals, known collectively as the Pennsylvania Canal, stretching 280 miles across Pennsylvania using locks, dams, towpaths, and railroads (for towing boats). Charles Dickens wrote an account of traveling on this canal in 1842. He described the crossing of the Allegheny Portage Railroad: "Occasionally the rails are laid upon the extreme verge of the giddy precipice and looking down from the carriage window, the traveler gazes sheer down without a stone or scrap of fence between into the mountain depths below,” Overall, he described his trip across Pennsylvania as "sufficiently disconcerting.”

slide18

Making this “canal” so remarkable was the fact that it had to cross the Appalachian Mountains. To do this, a canal boat was loaded onto a railroad and hauled up an incline, towed on another stretch of canal, loaded onto another railroad track, and so on. Such a cumbersome journey was still better than carrying goods on foot reducing the journey between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh from twenty-one to four days . However, railroads soon made such canals obsoleteand it went out of business in 1860.

slide19

The Illinois and Michigan Canal, built in 1848, made possible direct sailing from New York via the Erie Canal, the Great Lakes, and Chicago to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. Considered an engineering marvel comparable to the Erie Canal, it was 60 feet wide and six feet deep and had 15 locks, three dams, four aqueducts, and a 15-foot-wide towpath for the horses and mules towing the barges. It required innovations in engineering since it had to cut through areas of solid limestone.

slide20

The canal helped open up northern Illinois for settlement and put Chicago on the map. However, the coming of the railroads in the 1850s supplanted the canal in importance and helped Chicago dominate the map of the Midwest.

Below: Ships waiting for navigation to open up on the Illinois and Michigan Canal in 1865.

slide22

Between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 1700s road conditions in Europe were abysmal. When it rained they could turn into a morass of mud. Otherwise they were full of potholes and ruts that were especially hazardous for passengers of stagecoaches with their high center of gravity, killing many of them in stagecoach flips, although one man reportedly survived nine such flips. Ironically, another survivor of such a flip, William Huskisson,would be the very first railroad fatality.

slide23

Then John McAdam (1756-1836), invented a new kind of roadbed putting large stones on the bottom with layers of progressively smaller stones on top. The smallest stones could only be 1” in diameter, the idea being that the wear and tear of traffic would pack them together, as opposed to larger stones that would crack. Typically they had no binding, but at times tar would be used, thus giving rise to the term “tarmac”. Macadamized roads, as they would be called, drained well with drainage channels to the side. They were safe, and durable, vastly improving overland travel in Britain before the railroads.

A cross-section of a Macadamized Road

slide24

Typically, the tedious work of stone breaking for Macadamized roads was done by convicts, as portrayed in Gustave Courbet’s The Stonebreakers.

slide25

Since roadways were typically owned by private individuals or corporations, travelers had to pay tolls for their use. Unfortunately, toll revenues were undercut by the ease of circumventing toll stations, such paths being referred to as “shun-pikes.”

slide26

In America, the first major road was the Cumberland (aka National) Road connecting the Eastern Seaboard with the Ohio River Valley in the West by way of a low altitude water gap in the Allegheny Mountains known the Cumberland Narrows (not to be confused with the Cumberland Gap further south).

slide27

Authorized by President Jefferson in 1806 and begun in 1811, it started at Cumberland, Maryland and reached Wheeling, West Virginia (then part of Virginia) on the Ohio River in 1818. Congress authorized an extension to St. Louis in 1820 and a further extension to Jefferson, Missouri in 1825. However, the Panic of 1837 ended funding for the road and its western terminus was Vandalia, Illinois, short of the Mississippi River.

slide28

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Two types of things colonies provided Britain?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

slide29

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

slide31

Eli Whitney, his cotton gin, and an ad showing another of his innovations, manufacturing guns with interchangeable parts.  

slide32

Ironically, the cotton gin, which Whitney invented as a labor-saving device, proved a curse to African-Americans. Just as slavery was fading as an institution in the South, the massive new demands for cotton injected new life into that unfortunate institution and triggered a chain reaction of events that has plagued American history ever since.

slide33

Cotton came to be used as the primary fabric in the 1800s. It can be washed more easily and frequently than linen, since it has a tendency to crack and wear at the seams and creases. More frequent washing thus provided cleaner clothes, in particular eliminating lice, and probably improving overall public health.

slide34

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng?

slide35

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Br’s geogr. advantages?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

slide36

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Br’s natural resources?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

slide37

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

slide38

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

slide39

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)

slide40

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)

slide41

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)

Gradual improvement in women’s status (FC.114)

slide42

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)

Gradual improvement in women’s status (FC.114)

Drastic changes in soc. & family structure (FC.113)

slide43

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)

Gradual improvement in women’s status (FC.114)

Drastic changes in soc. & family structure (FC.113)

Powerful forces & effects of Ind. Rev. spread across globe (FC.116)

slide44

FC.117B AN OVERVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Need to help poor where church & family used to

More $ in economy

Higher standard of living

Profusion of new tech’s

Incentive to create new prod’s Research labs

Higher stand. of living after initial decline

Drastic changes in people’s lives:

Impers. urban soc + sep. of home & work Nucl. fam.

More sales

Raise production

More Jobs

Awful work cond’s Reforms

Need to protect people from rich & powerful

Various psychological effects:

Women win the vote

More educ. women

Rising status as seen in:

Need to regulate growing interdep. within & b/w nations

Power & expense of mod. weapons only it can afford

Global economic & political interdependence

RR’s, steamships & telegraph

Dev. cont. interiors & link mkts, fact’s & resources

Growing power of the indus. state due to:

Govt’s fund RRs, & est. stand. gauges & safety rules

Ind Rev starts in Britain (FC.111)

Railroads (FC.112)

Accelerating pace of tech. change (FC.117)

Impact on women (FC.114)

Social effects (FC.113)

More soc. mobility & freer fashions

More women in workforce More money and influence

World seems smaller & more impersonal

Longer livesLess religious & more materialistic

Marxism as reaction vs. industrial conditions (FC.115)

Outsourcing cycle ind. Rev. spreads across globe (FC.116)