08a sandy beaches n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
08A SANDY BEACHES PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
08A SANDY BEACHES

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 72

08A SANDY BEACHES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 131 Views
  • Uploaded on

08A SANDY BEACHES. I. Biological characteristics. A. Zonation 1. Broad 2. Not well defined B. Species diversity low C. Density & numbers of individuals can be very high. Maritime Forest. Dune. Beach Front. Surf. Beach zones at San Blas Peninsula, Port St. Joe, FL

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

08A SANDY BEACHES


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. 08A SANDY BEACHES

    2. I. Biological characteristics A. Zonation 1. Broad 2. Not well defined B. Species diversity low C. Density & numbers of individuals can be very high

    3. Maritime Forest Dune Beach Front Surf Beach zones at San Blas Peninsula, Port St. Joe, FL http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/coastal-dunes-geomorphology-25822000B

    4. Zones • A. Surf Zone • 1. Physical characteristics • a. Usually high energy • (1) Waves create turbulence • (2) Field trip sites • (a) East side • i Low energy waves • ii Protected by Sand and Dauphin Islands • (b) West side has higher energy waves • b. Water is saturated with O2

    5. Surf Zone (continued) • 2. Biological characteristics • a. Primary producers • (1) Planktonic only • (2) Density can be high during phytoplankton blooms

    6. Biological Characteristics of Surf Zone (continued) • Invertebrates are buried [Add striped hermit Clibanarius vittatus] • (1) Diopatra • (a) Polychaete worm • (b) Builds tubes with mucus that hardens into a parchment-like material • (c) Animal attaches small shells and plant material to tube • (d) Worm scavenges/preys upon… • i …organisms that float by • ii …organisms that settle and live on tube • (e) Usually just the upper portion of the tube is collected (without the worm)

    7. Plumed worm Diopatra cuprea (Polychaeta) Ruppert & Fox, 1988, Seashore Animals of the Southeast, Univ South Carolina Press, p. 197.

    8. Invertebrates are buried (continued) • (2) Soda straw worm • (a) Polychaete worm • (b) Builds compressible sand tubes that can accumulate in drifts/windrows on beach front • (c) Preys upon zooplankton

    9. Soda Straw worm Kinbergonuphis (Polychaeta) Ruppert & Fox, 1988, Seashore Animals of the Southeast, Univ South Carolina Press, p. 195

    10. 2. Biological characteristics of surf zone (continued) • Vertebrate predators common • (1) Feed behind breaking waves • (2) Many species of juvenile fish prey upon small invertebrates uncovered by wave turbulence • (3) Southern and Cow-nosed Rays feed on larger invertebrates

    11. Southern Stingray Dasyatis americana Amos & Amos, 1989, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, Alfred A. Knopf, pl 425

    12. The mouth of Cow-nosed rays is well adapted for crushing bivalves Photo: Jack O’Brien, 2012

    13. The Giant Atlantic Cockle Dinocardium robustum is common in the sub-tidal zone off Sand Island http://txmarspecies.tamug.edu/invertdetails.cfm?scinameID=Dinocardium%20robustum

    14. Crushed remains of cockles, the result of cow-nosed ray predation, have become quite common on local beach fronts Photo: Jack O’Brien, 2012

    15. c. Vertebrate predators common (continued) (4) Bottle-nosed dolphins Tursiops truncatus (a) Pods common off western ends of Gulf Coast Barrier Islands (b) Strong currents on island west ends stir up sand and expose invertebrates (c) Dolphins feed on the fish feeding on the invertebrates

    16. Surfing Dolphins http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.peconicpuffin.com/.a/6a00d8341c890753ef0105358cc9d6970b-800wi&imgrefurl=http://www.peconicpuffin.com/the_peconic_puffin/dolphins/&h=540&w=720&sz=61&tbnid=kjQy1CGOvXE9HM:&tbnh=92&tbnw=122&zoom=1&usg=__7ayEPOoJCnwD43XhyWvG0dnOyOI=&docid=9HpoSNAicow_nM&sa=X&ei=oAb3UffsHq2v4APUr4CwDg&sqi=2&ved=0CDgQ9QEwAw&dur=530#imgdii=_

    17. Maritime Forest Dune Beach Front Surf Beach zones at San Blas Peninsula, Port St. Joe, FL http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/coastal-dunes-geomorphology-25822000B

    18. B. Beach Front Zone 1. Physical characteristics a. Moist (capillary action of sand retains water) b. Sunny in daytime c. Substrate is unstable due to wave action

    19. 1. Physical characteristics of beach front zone (continued) d. BERM (1) Defines upper limit (2) Sharp edged “cliff” (1-2 feet high on Sand Island) formed by scouring of waves (3) Indicates the limit of the highest high tide

    20. The Sand Island berm on the east facing beach is fairly shallow due to low energy waves Photo: Jack O’Brien, 2012

    21. Mainland Beaches that receive high energy waves have well-formed berms Berm at St. Andrew’s Park, Panama City, FL Photo: Jack O’Brien, August 9, 2013

    22. Physical Structures (continued) • e. WRACK LINE • (1) Well-defined accumulation of debris • (2) Formed from… • (a) Flotsam/jetsam left at high tide • (b) Buried items uncovered by breaking waves

    23. Wrack Line composed of Sargassum, Sand Island Photo by Jack O’Brien, June 2013

    24. Typical berm & wrack line composed of shells Photo: A. Tabor, 2013

    25. B. Beach Front (continued) • 3. Biological characteristics • a. Animals are cryptic • b. More activity at night than during day • c. Dense aggregations common on many beaches (Not usually seen on Dauphin Island beaches)

    26. B. Beach Front (continued) • Trophic Interactions • Energy input • (1) Pennate diatoms • (a) Primary producers • (b) Adhere to surface of sand grains • (c) Will form mats in low areas that are relatively protected from tidal flushing • (2) Carcasses wash in from ocean

    27. Carcass of Southern Ray on Sand Island Photo: Jack O’Brien, June 2013

    28. 4. Trophic interactions on beach front (continued) • b. MEIOFAUNA • (1) Primary consumers • (2) Live interstitially between sand grains

    29. Trophic Interactions on Beach Front (continued) • c. Secondary consumers • (1) Deposit feeders • (a) Lugworm • polychaetes • (b) Ingest sand & • digest meiofauna • (c) Leave casts of • processed • sand around hole • (d) J-shaped burrow makes them hard to dig up

    30. Lugworm burrow openings and cast http://www.sms.si.edu/Irlspec/Arenic_crista.htm

    31. c. Secondary consumers (continued) (2) Suspension feeders (a) Feed on material suspended by waves (b) Donax, coquina clam

    32. Amos & Amos, 1989, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, Alfred A. Knopf, pl 131 Photo by A. Tabor, 2013 Coquina Surf Clam Donax variabilis

    33. c. Secondary consumers (continued) (3) Emerita (a) Mole or sand crabs (b) Feathery antennae catch particles as waves recede from beach

    34. Mole Crabs / Sand Crabs, Emerita Lippson & Lippson, , 1984, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hospkins Uni. Press, p 28

    35. Characteristic sand ripples on a beach front in Santa Barbara, CA indicate the presence of Emerita Photo: Jack O’Brien, June 2013

    36. Students in UC Santa Barbara marine biology class counting and sexing Emeritaafter sorting Photo: Jack O’Brien, June 2013

    37. Emerita can be found in great numbers on many beaches Photo: Jack O’Brien, June 2013

    38. Emerita in a sorting container Photo: Jack O’Brien, June 2013

    39. Trophic Interactions on Beach Front (continued) • d. Tertiary consumers (Top carnivores) • (1) Some bird species follow waves as they recede • (a) Godwits • I Long bills • ii Eat lugworms and bivalves

    40. Natl. Audubon Soc. Field Guide to N. Amer. Birds (Eastern Region), 1996

    41. (1) Bird species that follow receding waves on beach front (continued) (b) Sandpipers i Shake their bills ii Liquify sand

    42. Natl. Audubon Soc. Field Guide to N. Amer. Birds (Eastern Region), 1996

    43. CHEAP THOUGHTS BY JACK O’BRIEN

    44. WHAT DID SEAGULLS EAT BEFORE THERE WAS HUMAN GARBAGE… http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://wiseacre-gardens.com/birds/sea-gull-trash2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://wiseacre-gardens.com/wordpress/sea-gull-smorgasbord/&h=479&w=600&sz=94&tbnid=EqQP7Ri5fd15LM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=113&zoom=1&usg=__IuVqY9zUMyFXWG7LlOgOyu8O4j4=&docid=3OcJSxCy2xwfAM&sa=X&ei=mR_3UbnEM4_g8wSnm4CwDQ&ved=0CCwQ9QEwAA&dur=1302#imgdii=EqQP7Ri5fd15LM%3A%3BKW1sr3SOoGaQKM%3BEqQP7Ri5fd15LM%3A

    45. …AND PEOPLE WHO FEED THEM FRENCH FRIES? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Catching_a_snack_(5597547033).jpg

    46. Trophic Interactions on Beach Front (continued) • e. Scavengers • (1) Feed on dead organisms that are cast up onto beach from ocean • (2) Seagulls active in day

    47. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fotoartglamour.com/pictures/seagull-eating.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.fotoartglamour.com/page/3&h=625&w=800&sz=48&tbnid=2y6ZJQYEUt4X0M:&tbnh=94&tbnw=120&zoom=1&usg=__UxUep2Y7J81UZZvIUtQhGWp6IGw=&docid=RMOPHKZgcBEcrM&sa=X&ei=eBv3Uf_BDIi49QSpt4C4Cg&ved=0CGUQ9QEwEg&dur=525http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fotoartglamour.com/pictures/seagull-eating.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.fotoartglamour.com/page/3&h=625&w=800&sz=48&tbnid=2y6ZJQYEUt4X0M:&tbnh=94&tbnw=120&zoom=1&usg=__UxUep2Y7J81UZZvIUtQhGWp6IGw=&docid=RMOPHKZgcBEcrM&sa=X&ei=eBv3Uf_BDIi49QSpt4C4Cg&ved=0CGUQ9QEwEg&dur=525

    48. e. Scavengers on beach front (continued) (3) Ghost crabs (a) Ocypode (b) Their burrows can be… …located as far up as the Dune Zone …deeper than a meter

    49. Carcass of Southern Ray with burrows of opportunistic scavenging ghost crabs Photo: Jack O’Brien, Sand Island, June 2013

    50. (3) Ghost crabs (continued) (c) Active at night (b) Thick setae line opening to gill chamber i Crab buries itself in wet sand at bottom of burrow ii Water drawn up into setae by capillary action