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States of Consciousness. Modules 17 - 19. Waking Consciousness. Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environments Biological Rhythms Circadian Rhythm the biological clock. Sleep and Dreams. REM ( R apid E ye M ovement) Sleep recurring sleep stage vivid dreams

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waking consciousness
Waking Consciousness
  • Consciousness
    • our awareness of ourselves and our environments
  • Biological Rhythms
  • Circadian Rhythm
    • the biological clock
sleep and dreams
Sleep and Dreams
  • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
    • recurring sleep stage
    • vivid dreams
    • “paradoxical sleep”
  • Sleep
    • periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
brain waves and sleep stages
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • Alpha Waves
    • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
  • Delta Waves
    • large, slow waves of deep sleep
  • Hallucinations
    • false sensory experiences
stages in a typical night s sleep

Awake

Sleep

stages

1

2

3

REM

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation
  • Effects of Sleep Loss
    • fatigue
    • impaired concentration
    • depressed immune system
    • greater vulnerability to accidents
sleep deprivation1

Accident

frequency

More sleep,

fewer accidents

Less sleep,

more accidents

2,800

2,700

4,200

2,600

4000

2,500

3,800

2,400

3,600

Spring time change

(hour sleep loss)

Fall time change

(hour sleep gained)

Monday before time change

Monday after time change

Sleep Deprivation
sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
    • persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
  • Narcolepsy
    • uncontrollable sleep attacks
  • Sleep Apnea
    • temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
    • momentary reawakenings
night terrors and nightmares

Sleep

stages

Awake

1

2

3

REM

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Hours of sleep

Night Terrors and Nightmares
  • Night Terrors
    • occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4
    • high arousal-- appearance of being terrified
    • seldom remembered
dreams sigmund freud
Dreams: Sigmund Freud
  • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
    • wish fulfillment
    • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
  • Manifest Content
    • remembered story line
  • Latent Content
    • underlying meaning
dreams freud
Dreams: Freud
  • Dreams
    • sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind
    • hallucinatory imagery
    • discontinuities
    • incongruities
    • delusional acceptance of the content
    • difficulties remembering
dreams
Dreams
  • As Information Processing
    • helps facilitate memories
  • As a Physiological Function
    • periodic brain stimulation
  • REM Rebound
    • REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation
hypnosis
Hypnosis
  • Hypnosis
    • a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
hypnosis1
Hypnosis
  • Posthypnotic Amnesia
    • supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis
    • induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
hypnosis research
Hypnosis - Research
  • Orne & Evans (1965)
    • hypnotized group told to dip hand in fake acid, then throw the “acid” in assistant’s face
    • control group instructed to “pretend”
    • unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones
hypnosis2
Hypnosis
  • Posthypnotic Suggestion
    • suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
    • used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
hypnosis3
Hypnosis
  • Dissociation
    • a split in consciousness
    • allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
  • Hidden Observer
    • Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
drugs and consciousness
Drugs and Consciousness
  • Psychoactive Drug
    • a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
  • Physical Dependence
    • physiological need for a drug
    • marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
  • Psychological Dependence
    • a psychological need to use a drug
    • for example, to relieve negative emotions
dependence and addiction

Big

effect

Response to

first exposure

Drug

effect

After repeated

exposure, more

drug is needed

to produce

same effect

Little

effect

Large

Small

Drug dose

Dependence and Addiction
  • Tolerance
    • diminishing effect with regular use
  • Withdrawal
    • discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
psychoactive drugs
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Depressants – reduce neural activity
  • Alcohol
  • Barbituates
  • Opiates
  • Stimulants – excite neural activity
  • Caffeine
  • Nicotine
  • Amphetamines
  • Cocaine
psychoactive drugs1
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Hallucinogens – psychedelic drugs
  • LSD
  • Ecstasy
  • THC
near death experiences
Near-Death Experiences
  • Near-Death Experience
    • an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death
    • often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
near death experiences1
Near-Death Experiences
  • Dualism
    • the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
  • Monism
    • the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing