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Chapter 35. Plant Structure, Growth, and Development. LE 30-12ba. MONOCOTS. EUDICOTS. Orchid ( Lemboglossum rossii ). California poppy ( Eschscholzia california ). Eudicot Characteristics. Monocot Characteristics. Embryos. Two cotyledons. One cotyledon. LE 30-12bb. MONOCOTS.

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chapter 35

Chapter 35

Plant Structure, Growth, and Development

le 30 12ba

LE 30-12ba

MONOCOTS

EUDICOTS

Orchid

(Lemboglossum

rossii)

California

poppy

(Eschscholzia

california)

Eudicot

Characteristics

Monocot

Characteristics

Embryos

Two cotyledons

One cotyledon

le 30 12bb

LE 30-12bb

MONOCOTS

EUDICOTS

Pyrenean oak

(Quercus

pyrenaica)

Leaf

venation

Veins usually

netlike

Veins usually

parallel

Stems

Pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii)

Vascular tissue

usually arranged

in ring

Vascular tissue

scattered

le 30 12bc

LE 30-12bc

MONOCOTS

EUDICOTS

Lily (Lilium

“Enchantment”)

Roots

Dog rose (Rosa canina), a wild rose

Taproot (main root)

usually present

Root system

usually fibrous

(no main root)

le 30 12bd

LE 30-12bd

MONOCOTS

EUDICOTS

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a grass

Pea

(Lathyrusner

vosus, Lord

Anson’s

blue pea),

a legume

Pollen

Pollen grain with

one opening

Pollen grain with

three openings

Flowers

Anther

Zucchini

(Cucurbita

Pepo), female

(left), and

male flowers

Floral organs

usually in

multiples of three

Floral organs usually

in multiples of

four or five

Stigma

Ovary

Filament

le 35 2

LE 35-2

Reproductive shoot (flower)

Terminal bud

Node

Internode

Terminal

bud

Shoot

system

Vegetable

shoot

Blade

Leaf

Petiole

Axillary

bud

Stem

Taproot

Lateral roots

Root

system

le 35 4a

LE 35-4a

Prop roots.

le 35 4b

LE 35-4b

Storage roots.

le 35 4c

LE 35-4c

“Strangling” aerial roots.

le 35 4d

LE 35-4d

Buttress roots.

le 35 4e

LE 35-4e

Pneumatophores.

le 35 5a

LE 35-5a

Stolons.

le 35 5c

LE 35-5c

Tubers.

le 35 5d

LE 35-5d

Rhizomes.

Node

Rhizome

Root

le 35 6a

LE 35-6a

Simple leaf

Petiole

Axillary bud

le 35 6b

LE 35-6b

Leaflet

Compound leaf

Petiole

Axillary bud

le 35 6c

LE 35-6c

Doubly compound leaf

Leaflet

Petiole

Axillary bud

le 35 7a

LE 35-7a

Tendrils.

le 35 7b

LE 35-7b

Spines.

le 35 7c

LE 35-7c

Storage leaves.

the three tissue systems dermal vascular and ground
The Three Tissue Systems: Dermal, Vascular, and Ground
  • Each plant organ has dermal, vascular, and ground tissues
le 35 8

LE 35-8

Dermal

tissue

Ground

tissue

Vascular

tissue

slide24
In nonwoody plants, the dermal tissue system consists of the epidermis
  • In woody plants, protective tissues called periderm replace the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots
slide25
The vascular tissue system carries out long-distance transport of materials between roots and shoots
  • The two vascular tissues are xylem and phloem
slide26
Xylem conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots
  • Phloem transports organic nutrients from where they are made to where they are needed
slide27
The vascular tissue of a stem or root is collectively called the stele
  • In angiosperms the stele of the root is a solid central vascular cylinder
  • The stele of stems and leaves is divided into vascular bundles, strands of xylem and phloem
slide28
Tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular are the ground tissue system
  • Ground tissue includes cells specialized for storage, photosynthesis, and support
common types of plant cells
Common Types of Plant Cells
  • Like any multicellular organism, a plant is characterized by cellular differentiation, the specialization of cells in structure and function
slide30
Some major types of plant cells:
    • Parenchyma
    • Collenchyma
    • Sclerenchyma
    • Water-conducting cells of the xylem
    • Sugar-conducting cells of the phloem
le 35 9

LE 35-9

WATER-CONDUCTING CELLS OF THE XYLEM

PARENCHYMA CELLS

100 µm

Tracheids

Vessel

Parenchyma cells in Elodea leaf, with chloroplasts (LM)

60 µm

Pits

COLLENCHYMA CELLS

Cortical parenchyma cells

Tracheids and vessels

(colorized SEM)

80 µm

Vessel

element

Vessel elements with

perforated end walls

Tracheids

SUGAR-CONDUCTING CELLS OF THE PHLOEM

Collenchyma cells (in cortex of Sambucus, elderberry; cell walls stained red) (LM)

Sieve-tube members:

longitudinal view

(LM)

SCLERENCHYMA CELLS

5 µm

Companion

cell

Sclereid cells in pear (LM)

Sieve-tube

member

25 µm

Plasmodesma

Sieve

plate

Cell wall

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Companion

cell

30 µm

15 µm

Fiber cells (transverse section from ash tree) (LM)

Sieve-tube members:

longitudinal view

Sieve plate with pores (LM)

slide32
Annuals (corn, wheat, beans)
  • Biennials (carrots, beats)
  • Perennials (Trees, shrubs, some grasses)
concept 35 2 meristems generate cells for new organs
Concept 35.2: Meristems generate cells for new organs
  • Apical meristems are located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots
  • Apical meristems elongate shoots and roots, a process called primary growth
slide34
Lateral meristems add thickness to woody plants, a process called secondary growth
  • There are two lateral meristems: the vascular cambium and the cork cambium
  • The vascular cambium adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem
  • The cork cambium replaces the epidermis with periderm, which is thicker and tougher
le 35 10

LE 35-10

Primary growth in stems

Shoot apical

meristems

(in buds)

Epidermis

Cortex

Primary phloem

Primary xylem

Vascular

cambium

Lateral

meristems

Pith

Cork

cambium

Secondary growth in stems

Periderm

Cork

cambium

Pith

Cortex

Primary

xylem

Primary

phloem

Secondary

xylem

Root apical

meristems

Secondary

phloem

Vascular cambium

slide36
In woody plants, primary and secondary growth occur simultaneously but in different locations
le 35 11

LE 35-11

Terminal bud

Bud scale

Axillary buds

Leaf scar

This year’s growth

(one year old)

Node

Stem

Internode

One-year-old side

branch formed

from axillary bud

near shoot apex

Leaf scar

Last year’s growth

(two years old)

Scars left by terminal

bud scales of previous

winters

Growth of two

years ago (three

years old)

Leaf scar

concept 35 3 primary growth lengthens roots and shoots
Concept 35.3: Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots
  • Primary growth produces the primary plant body, the parts of the root and shoot systems produced by apical meristems
primary growth of roots
Primary Growth of Roots
  • The root tip is covered by a root cap, which protects the apical meristem as the root pushes through soil
  • Growth occurs just behind the root tip, in three zones of cells:
    • Zone of cell division
    • Zone of elongation
    • Zone of maturation

Video: Root Growth in a Radish Seed (time lapse)

le 35 12

LE 35-12

Vascular cylinder

Cortex

Epidermis

Key

Zone of

maturation

Root hair

Dermal

Ground

Vascular

Zone of

elongation

Apical

meristem

Zone of cell

division

Root cap

100 µm

slide41
The primary growth of roots produces the epidermis, ground tissue, and vascular tissue
  • In most roots, the stele is a vascular cylinder
  • The ground tissue fills the cortex, the region between the vascular cylinder and epidermis
  • The innermost layer of the cortex is called the endodermis
le 35 13

LE 35-13

Epidermis

Cortex

Vascular

cylinder

Endodermis

Pericycle

Core of

parenchyma

cells

Xylem

Phloem

100 µm

100 µm

Transverse section of a typical root. In the roots of typical gymnosperms and eudicots, as well as some monocots, the stele is a vascular cylinder consisting of a lobed core of xylem with phloem between the lobes.

Transverse section of a root with parenchyma in the center. The stele of many monocot roots is a vascular cylinder with a core of parenchyma surrounded by a ring of alternating xylem and phloem.

Endodermis

Key

Dermal

Pericycle

Ground

Vascular

Xylem

Phloem

50 µm

le 35 14

LE 35-14

100 µm

Emerging

lateral

root

Cortex

Vascular

cylinder

Epidermis

Lateral root

primary growth of shoots
Primary Growth of Shoots
  • A shoot apical meristem is a dome-shaped mass of dividing cells at the tip of the terminal bud
  • It gives rise to a repetition of internodes and leaf-bearing nodes
le 35 15

LE 35-15

Apical meristem

Leaf primordia

Developing

vascular

strand

Axillary bud

meristems

0.25 mm

tissue organization of stems
Tissue Organization of Stems
  • In gymnosperms and most eudicots, the vascular tissue consists of vascular bundles that are arranged in a ring
slide48
In most monocot stems, the vascular bundles are scattered throughout the ground tissue, rather than forming a ring
le 35 16

LE 35-16

Phloem

Xylem

Ground

tissue

Sclerenchyma

(fiber cells)

Ground tissue

connecting

pith to cortex

Pith

Epidermis

Key

Vascular

bundles

Cortex

Epidermis

Dermal

Vascular

bundles

Ground

Vascular

1 mm

1 mm

A monocot (maize) stem. Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the ground tissue. In such an arrangement, ground tissue is not partitioned into pith and cortex. (LM of transverse section)

A eudicot (sunflower) stem. Vascular bundles form a ring. Ground tissue toward the inside is called pith, and ground tissue toward the outside is called cortex. (LM of transverse section)

tissue organization of leaves
Tissue Organization of Leaves
  • The epidermis in leaves is interrupted by stomata, which allow CO2 exchange between the air and the photosynthetic cells in a leaf
  • The ground tissue in a leaf is sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis
  • The vascular tissue of each leaf is continuous with the vascular tissue of the stem
le 35 17

LE 35-17

Key

to labels

Guard

cells

Dermal

Stomatal pore

Ground

Vascular

Epidermal

cells

Sclerenchyma

fibers

50 µm

Cuticle

Surface view of a spiderwort

(Tradescantia) leaf (LM)

Stoma

Upper

epidermis

Palisade

mesophyll

Bundle-

sheath

cell

Spongy

mesophyll

Lower

epidermis

Guard

cells

Cuticle

Vein

Xylem

Vein

Air spaces

Guard cells

Phloem

Guard

cells

100 µm

Cutaway drawing of leaf tissues

Transverse section of a lilac

(Syringa) leaf (LM)

concept 35 4 secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants
Concept 35.4: Secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants
  • Secondary growth occurs in stems and roots of woody plants but rarely in leaves
  • The secondary plant body consists of the tissues produced by the vascular cambium and cork cambium
le 35 18a

LE 35-18a

Primary and secondary growth

in a two-year-old stem

Epidermis

Pith

Cortex

Primary xylem

Primary

phloem

Vascular cambium

Primary phloem

Vascular

cambium

Cortex

Epidermis

Primary

xylem

Phloem ray

Growth

Pith

Xylem

ray

Primary

xylem

Secondary xylem

Vascular cambium

Secondary phloem

Primary phloem

Cork

First cork cambium

Periderm

(mainly cork

cambia

and cork)

Growth

Primary

phloem

Secondary

phloem

Secondary

xylem (two

years of

production)

Vascular

cambium

Secondary

xylem

Vascular cambium

Secondary phloem

Bark

Primary

xylem

Most recent

cork cambium

Layers of

periderm

Pith

Cork

le 35 18b

LE 35-18b

Secondary phloem

Vascular cambium

Cork

cambium

Late wood

Secondary

xylem

Periderm

Early wood

Cork

Transverse section

of a three-year-

old Tilia (linden)

stem (LM)

Xylem ray

Bark

0.5 mm

0.5 mm

the vascular cambium and secondary vascular tissue
The Vascular Cambium and Secondary Vascular Tissue
  • The vascular cambium is a cylinder of meristematic cells one cell thick
  • It develops from undifferentiated cells and parenchyma cells that regain the capacity of divide
slide56
In transverse section, the vascular cambium appears as a ring, with regions of dividing cells called fusiform initials and ray initials
  • The initials increase the vascular cambium’s circumference and add secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside
le 35 19

LE 35-19

Vascular

cambium

Types of cell division

Accumulation of secondary growth

slide58
As a tree or woody shrub ages, the older layers of secondary xylem, the heartwood, no longer transport water and minerals
  • The outer layers, known as sapwood, still transport materials through the xylem
le 35 20

LE 35-20

Growth ring

Vascular

ray

Heartwood

Secondary

xylem

Sapwood

Vascular cambium

Secondary phloem

Bark

Layers of periderm

cork cambia and the production of periderm
Cork Cambia and the Production of Periderm
  • The cork cambium gives rise to the secondary plant body’s protective covering, or periderm
  • Periderm consists of the cork cambium plus the layers of cork cells it produces
  • Bark consists of all the tissues external to the vascular cambium, including secondary phloem and periderm