update in veterinary medicine n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Update in Veterinary Medicine PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Update in Veterinary Medicine

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 38

Update in Veterinary Medicine - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 76 Views
  • Uploaded on

Update in Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Maria M. Crane Zoo Atlanta. Overview of Discussion. Medical management of captive orangutans Preventative Medicine Anesthesia Protocols Vaccinations TB testing Current Health Issue. Preventative Medicine. Quarantine – 30 to 90 days

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Update in Veterinary Medicine' - annick


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
update in veterinary medicine

Update in Veterinary Medicine

Dr. Maria M. Crane

Zoo Atlanta

overview of discussion
Overview of Discussion
  • Medical management of captive orangutans
    • Preventative Medicine
    • Anesthesia Protocols
    • Vaccinations
    • TB testing
  • Current Health Issue
preventative medicine
Preventative Medicine
  • Quarantine – 30 to 90 days

- 120 days or longer if wild caught

  • Physical Examinations
    • Frequency: 12 – 24 months
    • Palpation of the animal’s abdomen, musculoskeletal system, rectal palpation, thoracic auscultation, and exam of eyes, ears, oral cavity and urogenitial system
dental exams
Dental Exams
  • Oral cavity exam
  • Dental prophylaxis
    • Remove tartar & calculi
  • Periodontal disease
  • Tooth problems
    • Cavities, fractures
  • Dental radiographs
blood collection
Blood Collection
  • Sites: brachial, saphenous or femoral veins
  • Complete blood count
  • Serum chemistry panels
  • Serum banking
blood collection1
Blood Collection
  • Lipid panel
    • Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL
  • Thyroid hormone testing
  • Viral serology
  • Blood typing
  • Cardiac isoenzymes
urinalysis
Urinalysis
  • Collection: clean catch or sterile urinary catheterization
  • Data on bladder health, kidney function & diabetes
  • Complimentary with CBC & serum chemistry profiles
diagnostic imaging
Diagnostic Imaging
  • Radiographs
    • Thoracic, abdominal, dental
  • Ultrasound
    • Abdominal, reproductive
  • Endoscopy
    • Bronchoscopy
    • Gastroscopy
  • Computed Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging - MRI
    • Bronchoscopy
    • Gastroscopy
vaccinations
Vaccinations
  • Based on history and exposure risks
  • Current vaccination recommendations for humans and animals
  • Hand-raised neonates & naïve juveniles
vaccinations1
Minimal Vaccines Recommendations

Polio

Tetanus

Measles

Additional Vaccines

Rabies

Influenza A & B

West Nile Virus

Hepatitis B

Vaccinations
additional vaccinations
Additional Vaccinations
  • Hand-raised
    • Pneumococcal vaccine
    • Hepatitis B
    • Haemophilus influenzae type b
  • Geriatric
    • Pneumococcal vaccine
parasite control
Parasite Control
  • Fecal examinations
    • Direct exam, floatation & sedimentation
  • Frequency
    • 2 – 4 times a year
  • Fecal culture & sensitivity
    • Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., E. coli strains, Yersinia spp.
tuberculosis tb
Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Significant cause of morbidity and mortality in domestic and wild animals worldwide
  • Zoonotic disease
  • Potential problems with TB
    • Restriction of animal movement
    • Issues associated with human health
    • Euthanasia of potentially healthy animals
tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
  • TB complex comprised of pathogenic Mycobacterium spp.
    • M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. microti and M. pinnipedii
  • Orangutans: M. tuberculosis & M. bovis
    • M. avium – atypical mycobacterial
tb testing
TB Testing
  • Guidelines for testing based on standards
    • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
    • Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
    • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
    • Animal Health Committee of AZA (AHC)
problems with tb testing
Problems with TB testing
  • Orangutans – non-specific reaction
  • Not one test is 100% reliable for detecting TB in zoo animals
  • Routine screening and clinical evaluation of suspect cases requires multiple tests
mycobacterial testing
Mycobacterial Testing
  • Intradermal test with old mammalian tuberculin
  • Thoracic radiographs
  • Gastric, tracheal or bronchoalveolar lavage
    • C&S ( 8 weeks or >)
    • acid fast stain
additional mycobacterial testing
Serologic tests

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ELISA

Multiantigen-print immunoassay

MAPIA

Detect antibodies

Immunoassays

Primagam

Cell-mediated response

Cytokine production

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA probes

Identification of mycobacterium species

Test culture-negative samples

Additional Mycobacterial Testing
necropsy
Necropsy
  • Standardized Necropsy Report for Great Apes
  • Gross examination and histopathology
  • Bacterial culture if infection suspected
  • Collect Blood – bank, viral serology,

toxicology

  • Send Reports to Vet advisor & Pathology advisor
chemical immobilizations
Chemical Immobilizations
  • Injectable anesthetics for inductions
    • Ketamine alone
    • Ketamine combined with Midazolam, Diazepam, Butorphenol or Medetomidine
    • Tiletamine/zolazepam or Telazol®
  • Gas Anesthesia
    • Isoflurane or Sevoflurane
intubation
Intubation
  • Intubation to provide gas anesthesia for longer procedures
  • Problems
    • Laryngospasm
    • Inserting endotracheal tube too deeply
anesthetic monitoring
Anesthetic Monitoring
  • Heart Rate
    • Peripheral pulses
  • Respiratory - rate & depth
  • Body temperature
anesthetic monitoring1
Anesthetic Monitoring
  • Pulse oximetry
  • Electrocardiography
  • Blood Pressure
  • End-tidal Capnography
  • Intravenous catheter & fluid therapy
current health issues
Current Health Issues
  • Respiratory Disease
    • Airsacculitis
    • Pneumonia
    • Sinusitis
cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Failure
    • Fibrosing Cardiomyopathy
      • Risk Factors ?
        • Genetics
        • Blood pressure
        • Diet
        • Exercise
        • Stress
        • Age – related
gastrointestinal problems
Gastrointestinal Problems
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Obesity