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Terrorist Mentality
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  1. Terrorist Mentality Dr. Mick Maurer http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  2. There are 109 different definitions of terrorism by leading academics in the field: • Violence, force (83.5%) • Political (65%) • Fear, emphasis on terror (51%) • Threats (47%) • Psychological effects and anticipated reactions (41.5%) • Discrepancy between the targets and the victims (37.5%) • Intentional planned, systematic organized action (32%) • Methods of combat, strategy, tactics (30.5%) http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  3. “Terrorism is the deliberate and systematic assault on civilians to inspire fear for political ends.” http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  4. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  5. “Terrorism is the intentional use of, or threat to use violence against civilians or against civilian targets, in order to attain political aims.” http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  6. ‘Suicide’ Bombings Public Transport – Haifa , Dec 2 , 2001 http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  7. much contemporary terrorism seems to be predicated on excessive resentment and extreme self-righteousness • collectors of injustice: extremely sensitive to slights and humiliations inflicted on themselves or on members of social groups to which they belong or with which they identify themselves • hypersensitive to the sufferings and injustices of the world at large, but totally insensitive to immediate, palpable suffering directly around him, especially if he has produced it himself http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  8. propensity to dehumanize his victims by regarding them as objects or impersonal concepts • perceives himself part of an elite engaged in a heroic struggle to right the injustices of a cruel world - This struggle is an obligation, a duty, not a voluntary choice, because they are enlightened in a mass of unenlightened • may be stress seekers with a need to interrupt the monotony of this daily lives by the pursuit of adventure and excitement http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  9. frustration about an inability to change society • a sense of self-righteousness • a utopian belief in the world • oversimplification of issues • a feeling of social isolation • a cold-blooded willingness to kill • infected as well with an anti-Western bias http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  10. many, not all, are inspired, motivated, and justified by fundamentalist religious doctrine, the approval of God for the killing of pagans, heathens, or infidels • vast majority reported that there were no other family members in the organization when they joined (70% of secular & 80% of Islamists) • sometimes there is a missing father. • the mother is a significant image in their lives. • they behave impulsively and perceive things in extremes, in shades of black and white. • they have known failure in their lives. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  11. peer group was of much greater influence, and in many cases it was a friend or acquaintance in the group who recruited the subject (secular in school and social group, Islamist in mosque, religious organizations and religious instruction) • 15% of secular and 30% of Islamist sited formal recruitment process • over half of each group knew their recruiter prior to recruitment • those previously imprisoned, especially the Islamist terrorist, found the experience was intense – further consolidated their identity and the group or organizational membership that provided the most valued element of personal identity http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  12. prison brought them closer to the group, learned more about the group and were more committed to the cause following their incarceration (77% of Islamists and 54% of secular) • concerning group dynamics and decision making for both groups it is clear they could question details, but not whether or not the authorized act should be carried out • with no other means to achieve status and success the organization’s success became central to individual identity and provides a ‘reason for living’ • the more prominent and the more important (and often times the more violent) a group is, the greater the prestige that is then projected onto group members http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  13. pride and shame as expressed by the individual were reflections of group actions, not individual actions, feelings or experiences • if the group says it is required and justified, then it is required and justified • guilt or remorse by the individual is not tolerated because the organization does not express it • their sexual identity is uncertain. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  14. four observable stages appear to frame a process of ideological development common to many individuals and groups of diverse ideological background (a heuristic): a.things are not as they should be, an injustice that does not apply to everyone, “it’s not fair” b.because injustice generally results from transgressive (wrongful) behavior, hold a person or group responsible (“it’s your fault”), identifying a potential target c.deem the person or group responsible for the injustice as “bad” (“you’re evil”) d.facilitates violence http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  15. “shahid” • The ‘suicide’ bomber does not act out of suffering or inferior economic status, but rather out of a desire to win social recognition, if not in his lifetime, then after his death as a 'shahid'. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  16. In Islam • In Arabic, a martyr is termed "shahid" (literally, "witness"). The concept of the shahid is discussed in the Hadith, the sayings of Muhammad; the term recurs frequently in the Qur'an, but usually with its literal meaning of "witness". The first martyr in Islam was the old woman Sumaya bint Khabbat [1] the first Muslim to die at the hands of the polytheists of Mecca (specifically, Abu Jahl). A famous person widely regarded as a martyr - indeed, an archetypical martyr for the Shia - is Husayn bin Ali, who died at the hands of the forces of the caliphYazid I at Karbala. The Shia commemorate this event each year at Aashurah. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  17. Martyrdom today • The term has since been used metaphorically for people killed in a historical struggle for some cause, such as Yonatan "Yonni" Netanyahu - the hero of Entebbe, or those whose deaths served to galvanize a particular movement. • In the 20th century, many Muslims called suicide bombers belonging to Islamist and Palestinian nationalist groups claim to be "martyrs". Such usage is very controversial and generally has not occurred in the English media. On the other hand, the Arab word "shaheed" has been sometimes used since in English it carries no obvious emotional baggage. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  18. Hero or villain? • The term "martyr" is in some ways semantically interchangeable with "hero" — both are almost always controversial. The phrase "one man's hero is another's criminal" is a simple way of expressing this disparity. Warriors throughout history returning from battle are typically revered for "heroism" and "bravery". In recent history, those that commit criminal acts during war run the risk of military courts martial. In all cultures, war dead are considered to be in some sense "martyrs". This is true of U.S. soldiers killed in foreign military operations — the U.S. President commonly refers to "their sacrifice" as being "for the cause of freedom". The actual word "martyr" is not used, however. • Suicide bombers in Palestine are typically hailed as "martyrs" by many Palestinians (the actual percentage is also disputed) due to Islam's prohibition against suicide. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  19. The ‘Suicide’ AttackDefinition “A violent, politically motivated action executed consciously, actively and with prior intent by a single individual (or individuals) who kills himself in the course of the operation together with his chosen target. The guaranteed and preplanned death of the perpetrator is a prerequisite for the operation’s success.” “A mode of operation whereby the act of assault depends on the terrorist’s death. The terrorist is fully aware of the fact that if he does not commit suicide, the assault plan will not take place.” The central component, which makes the suicide attack unique, is the attacker’s knowledge that his death is a prerequisite for the very occurrence of the attack. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  20. ‘Suicide’ attacks are considered a preferred means byterror organizations for the following reasons: ‘Suicide’ attacks cause grave damage to property and multiple deaths. ‘Suicide’ attacks receive broad media coverage. A ‘suicide’ attack is a “media event,” as it necessitates determination and martyrdom on the terrorist’s part. Although a ‘suicide’ attack is essentially uncomplicated, it can be perpetrated at the time and place that the attacker chooses. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  21. Both the dispatcher and the ‘suicide’ bomber dehumanize their victims. They are able to be heartless and without human emotion towards the victims. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  22. 15 year-old Jalal • A ‘suicide’ bomber, 15 year-old Jalal, said: *" My classmate recruited me to be a 'shahid', for which he was paid, and he gave me $20… *'shahids' are for God, I wanted to kill many Jews and take revenge. * I would have sold my parents and the whole world for the Garden of Eden. * Mostly I thought about my mother on my way to the attack. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  23. To be a 'shahid' or not to be… http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  24. those who commit or encourage these attacks do not associate these acts with suicide – heroic acts of martyrdom a. suicide associated with hopelessness and depression desire to end intense & unbearable psychological pain family and loved ones attempt to discourage b. martyrdom by contrast is associated with hopefulness about afterlife rewards in paradise and feelings of heroic sacrifice; others who care for the actor see the pending act as heroic family & loved ones typically support the behavior if the event occurs the family is honored http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  25. http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  26. conflicts exist over establishing the Caliphate that will unite dar al Islam, but his actions also may insert him into the Caliphate power struggle: • Statement broadcast by bin Laden in Qatar on October 7, 2001 – referred specifically to 80 years of humiliation of Islam, apparently dated the period of humiliation to 1921, the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, and the establishment of Britain’s Palestine Mandate that provided for a Jewish homeland http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  27. (As suggested by Thomas L. Friedman NY Times OP-ED) (11-16-2005) “First they 'suicide' bombed the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for the Crusaders, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Crusader.   Then they came for the Shi'a, and I didn’t speak up because I was a Sunni. Then they came for me, and by that time there was no one left to speak up for me.” - Rev. Martin Niemöller paraphrased http:///www.mickmaurer.com

  28. Bali Amman http:///www.mickmaurer.com