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Writing processes. Creating (Prewriting) Planning (Outlining) Writing Polishing. Step 1: Prewriting. Choosing and narrowing a topic (in assignments that you can choose your own topic) Generating ideas

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writing processes
Writing processes
  • Creating (Prewriting)
  • Planning (Outlining)
  • Writing
  • Polishing
step 1 prewriting
Step 1: Prewriting
  • Choosing and narrowing a topic (in assignments that you can choose your own topic)
  • Generating ideas
  • Journal writing, you can record your daily experiences, or you can write down quotations that are meaningful to you.
  • Listing

a brainstorming technique in which you think about your topic and quickly make a list of whatever words or phrases come into your mind. (See page 267 for the procedures).

  • Generating ideas
  • Freewriting

brainstorming activity in which you write freely about a topic because you are looking for a specific focus. (See page 268 for the procedures)

  • Clustering

See page 270 for the clustering model

step 2 planning outlining
Step 2: Planning (Outlining)
  • Step 2A: Making sublists (page 271)

Communication problems


The rough outline:

Communication problems:

A. Poor verbal skills

  • Lack vocabulary
  • Poor pronunciation

B. Americans difficult to understand

  • Use incomplete sentences
  • Use unclear expressions
  • Talk to fast
  • Use slang and idioms
  • Step 2B: Writing the topic sentence:

One problem that many international students face in the United States is communication with Americans.

  • Step 2C: Outlining
  • Outlining is a formal plan for a paragraph
  • You may never need to prepare a formal outline, but if you do, look at page 272 for the example of a formal outline that include the topic sentence, supporting points, supporting details and concluding sentence.
step 3 writing
Step 3: Writing
  • See page 272
step 4 polishing
Step 4: Polishing
  • Step 4A: Revising (page 273)

Whe you revise, you change what you have written to improve it.

You check it for content, organization, including unity, ccoherence, and logic.

You can change, rearrange, add, or delete, all for the goal of comunicating your thoughts in a clearer, more effective, and more interesting way.

  • Step 4B: Editing (Proofreading) (page 275)
  • Step 4C: Writing the final copy.