Splenic infarcts gross coagulative necrosis
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Splenic infarcts – gross Coagulative necrosis.

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Splenic infarcts gross coagulative necrosis l.jpg
Splenic infarcts – grossCoagulative necrosis

Two large infarctions (areas of coagulative necrosis) are seen in this sectioned spleen.Since the etiology of coagulative necrosis is usually vascular with loss of blood supply, the infarct occurs in a vascular distribution. Thus, infarcts are often wedge-shaped with a base on the organ capsule.


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Infarcted bowel – grosswet gangrene

The small intestine is infarcted. The dark red to grey infarcted bowel contrasts with the pale pink normal bowel at the bottom




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Microscopically, the renal cortex has undergone anoxic injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. There is a hemorrhagic zone in the middle where the cells are dying or have not quite died, and then normal renal parenchyma at the far right.This is an example of coagulative necrosis

3 stages of coagulative necrosis (L to R) -- micro


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Lung abscesses (liquefactive injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like.  necrosis) -- gross

Extensive acute inflammation may lead to abscess formation, as seen here with rounded abscesses (the purulent material has drained out after sectioning to leave a cavity) in upper lobe and lower lobe


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Liver abscess – micro injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. liquefactive necrosis

The liver shows a small abscess here filled with many neutrophils. This abscess is an example of localized liquefactive necrosis


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Liquefactive necrosis -- gross injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

Grossly, the cerebral infarction at the upper left here demonstrates liquefactive necrosis.Eventually, the removal of the dead tissue leaves behind a cavity


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Liquefactive necrosis of brain injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. -- micro

This is liquefactive necrosis in the brain in a patient who suffered a "stroke" with focal loss of blood supply to a portion of cerebrum. 


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Organizing liquefactive necrosis with cysts -- gross injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

As this infarct in the brain is organizing and being resolved, the liquefactive necrosis leads to resolution with cystic spaces


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Macrophages cleaning liquefactive necrosis -- micro injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

At high magnification, liquefactive necrosis of the brain demonstrates many macrophages at the right which are cleaning up the necrotic cellular debris


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Caseous necrosis -- gross injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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Caseous -- gross injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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Extensive caseous necrosis injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like.  -- gross


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Caseous necrosis lungs -- micro injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

Microscopically, caseous necrosis is characterized by acellular pink areas of necrosis, as seen here at the upper right, surrounded by a granulomatous inflammatory process


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Fat necrosis -- gross injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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Fat necrosis pancreas -- micro injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

Microscopically, fat necrosis adjacent to pancreas is seen here. There are some remaining steatocytes at the left which are not necrotic. The necrotic fat cells at the right have vague cellular outlines, have lost their peripheral nuclei, and their cytoplasm has become a pink amorphous mass of necrotic material


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Gangrene -- gross injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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Wet gangrene -- gross injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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Gangrenous necrosis -- micro injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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Ch. 1, p. 2, Fig. 1-2 injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

Myocyte adaptation


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See Ch. 1, p. 3. Fig. 1-3 injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

Physiologic hypertrophy


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Left ventricular hypertrophy -- gross injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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Muscle atrophy -- micro injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

There are some muscle fibers here that show atrophy.The number of cells is the same as before the atrophy occurred, but the size of some fibers is reduced.This is a response to injury by "downsizing" to conserve the cell


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See also Ch. 1, p. 5, Fig. 1-4 injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

Physiologic atrophy


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Atrophic testis -- gross injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

The testis at the right has undergone atrophy and is much smaller than the normal testis at the left


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See Ch. 1, p. 5, Fig. 1-5 injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

Squamous metaplasia


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Gastric metaplasia in esophagus -- micro injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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Slide – Fatty liver injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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Leiomyoma injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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  • Ischemia causes cell injury by injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 

    • Activation of lipases

    • Activation of proteases

    • generation of free radicals

    • initiating inflammation

    • reducing cellular oxygen


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  • Mitochondria injury at the left so that the cells appear pale and ghost-like. 


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  • Hamartoma mature specialized tissue indigenous to particular site, referred to as:


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  • Chondroma mature specialized tissue indigenous to particular site, referred to as:


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Prostaglandins synthesized at the site of inflammation


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Compliment proteins chemotaxis, cytolysis and opsonization at the site of inflammation


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