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Alterations of Consciousness

Alterations of Consciousness

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Alterations of Consciousness

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  1. Alterations of Consciousness Psychology 2617

  2. Introduction • Basically, sleep and wakefulness and stuff in between • We have a rhythm to this stuff • Circadian • We have other rhythms too • Basically a 24 hr clock

  3. Circadian rhythms • 24 hr clock • Sleep and wakefulness cycle • Clock can be set and reset • Jet lag • Exercise and sex • Pineal gland and SCN play a role

  4. sleep • There are rhythms within sleep too • 90 min or so cycle of dreaming • Five stages of sleep • Alpha to delta • REM

  5. REM • 25% of the night • Eye movement • Hallucinations • Genital arousal • Everybody dreams • We need REM

  6. Without REM • Tired • Immune system depressed • Creativity drops • Trouble concentrating • Slowed performance • Misperception • HGH is released during sleep • So insomnia is a big deal

  7. Sleep disorders • Insomnia as mentioned • Narcolepsy • Drop right into REM • Sleep apnea • Deprived of O2, less slow wave sleep • Potentially fatal • Night terrors • Stage 4 • Mostly kids

  8. Another cool example • Mutant hamsters • Martin Ralph • Tau gene • TT normal 24 hr cycle • tt 20 hr cycle • Tt or tT gives 22 hr cycle

  9. Teenage Mutant Ninja Hamsters • Single Gene effect • Affects brain development • SCN specifically • May be cognitive effects

  10. The disorders • Sleep apnea • Basically you stop breathing • Of course, this leads to hypoxia, which we have talked about • Can wake up disoriented, can actually cause damage • May be the cause of SIDS

  11. Sleep Apnea • Obstructive sleep apnea • Airway collapses • Central sleep apnea • Brain stops sending sleep signals • CPAP and alarms are the treatments

  12. Narcolepsy • Straight to REM outa nowhere • Symptoms • Irresistible urge to sleep • Cataplexy • Hypnagogic hallucination • Sleep paralysis • Can be controlled

  13. Night Terrors • Usually in stage 4 sleep • Oddly, you should not be hallucinating here • What causes them • Dunno • Usually we grow out of them • Often manifests itself in older people with sleep walking

  14. Seizures • Grand mal • Petit mal • Generalized • Partial • Aura beforehand • Prodromal phase • Postictal phase

  15. Of course I sees her, she’s right over there • Really a symptom • Something is up • Could be a tumour • Could be a brain anomaly of some sort • As varied as people are • Treatment usually involves drugs or a learning type approach