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Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Passives: Discrete, Integrated, and Embedded. Presented by Paul Kasemir and Eric Wilson. Chapter Objectives. Define passives and their fundamental parameters Describe the role of passives in electronic products Introduce the different forms

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chapter 11 fundamentals of passives discrete integrated and embedded

Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Passives: Discrete, Integrated, and Embedded

Presented by

Paul Kasemir and Eric Wilson

chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Define passives and their fundamental parameters
  • Describe the role of passives in electronic products
  • Introduce the different forms
  • Describe the different materials and processes used for passives
11 1 what are passives
11.1 What are Passives?
  • Can sense, monitor, transfer, attenuate, and control voltages
  • Cannot differentiate between positive and negative polarity
  • Cannot apply gain or amplification
  • Passives absorb and dissipate electrical energy
  • Ex. Resistor, inductor, capacitor, transformer, filter, switch, relay
11 2 role of passives in electronic products
11.2 Role of Passives in Electronic Products
  • High frequency applications take smaller values (pF and nH)
  • Impedance matching to coax (50 ohm)
  • Power supplies require large capacitance
  • Digital circuitry requires decoupling capacitors for current surges
  • Resistors used for termination, filtering, timing and pull up/down
rf passives
RF Passives
  • Filters, couplers, RF crossings, impedance matching, and antennas.
  • Signal inductors (1-20nH) and capacitors (1-20pF)
  • Choke Inductors (20-100nH)
  • Higher frequency requires smaller footprints, or even embedded passives
  • Mixed-Signal packages used in cell phones and GPS in MCM
11 3 fundamentals of passives
11.3 Fundamentals of Passives
  • Resistor
    • Resist current flow
    • Dissipate a power as heat
    • V = IR
    • Current Density, resistivity, conductivity, and sheet resistance
fundamentals of capacitor
Fundamentals of Capacitor
  • Stores electrical charge Q
  • Dielectric between 2 metal plates
  • Capacitance C = QV = εA/d
  • I = C(dV/dt) DC open
  • Series and parallel capacitors
  • Reactance, impedance, ESR, leakage current
fundamentals of inductor
Fundamentals of Inductor
  • Stores energy in magnetic field
  • Wire coil with or without core
  • Inductance L = μn2Al
  • V = L(dI/dt) DC short
  • Magnetic cores increase B field, and thus inductance
filters
Filters
  • Low-pass
  • High-pass
  • Bandpass
  • Bandstop
  • Series-parallel combination of R, L, and C
physical representation
Physical Representation
  • Discrete – single passive
  • Integrated – multiple passives
    • Array
      • SIP and DIP resistor packages
    • Network
      • Filter circuits with only inputs and outputs as package terminals
  • Embedded
    • Created as part of the substrate
passive comparisons
Passive Comparisons
  • In a typical circuit, 80% of components are passives
  • 50% of the PCB is taken by passives
  • 25% of solder connections go to passives
  • ~900 billion discrete units per year
11 5 discrete passives
11.5 Discrete Passives
  • Resistors
    • Wire-wound
      • Nichrome wire
    • Film resistors
      • Carbon or metal film deposited on substrate
    • Carbon-composite
      • Graphite powder, silica and a binder
resistor applications
Resistor applications
  • Bias
  • Divider
  • Feedback
  • Termination
  • Pull up/down
  • Sense
  • Delay
  • Timing
polar capacitors
Polar Capacitors
  • Aluminum electrolyte
    • Uneven surface gives efficiency
  • Tantalum
    • Pellet with lots of surface area
    • Cathode material limits conductivity
nonpolar capacitors
Nonpolar Capacitors
  • Film
    • Rolled
    • Stacked
  • Ceramic
    • Most dominant
    • Like stacked film
    • Used to need precious metals
    • Now Ni and Cu can be used
  • High Capacitance
    • 1-47 F
capacitor performance i
Capacitor Performance I
  • Remember capacitors have AC effects
  • Temperature coefficient
    • Typically less than 10%
    • Some can be on order of ppm/°C
    • Larger capacitance = worse coefficient
capacitor performance ii
Capacitor Performance II
  • Voltage coefficient
  • Aging
    • Logarithmic
    • X7R 1% per decade hour (good)
    • Reversible
capacitors becoming inductors
Capacitors Becoming Inductors
  • Caps have associated inductance
  • Self resonant frequency
  • ESL dependent on physical structure
capacitor applications i
Capacitor Applications I
  • Coupling
  • Timing and wave shaping
    • Changing RC time constant
    • Windshields
capacitor applications ii
Capacitor Applications II
  • Filtering
    • Low pass filters
  • Decoupling
    • Mostly for digital signals
inductors
Inductors
  • SMT inductors looking like SMT caps
  • Core type
  • Value in henries, but should also have series resistance
  • “Choke” role
  • Timing circuits using Ls are gone
11 6 integrated passives
11.6 Integrated Passives
  • Increased quantity decreases price
    • But maybe not as much as you would think
  • Smaller components = higher mounting costs
    • But maybe a lot more than you would think
arrays and networks
Arrays and Networks
  • Arrays
    • Many of the same type in a single package
    • Good for R
    • Not as much for C
  • Networks
    • Different types in one package
    • Good for RC or RLC functions
11 7 embedded integral passives
11.7 Embedded (Integral) Passives
  • Benefits
    • Smaller
    • Cheaper (???)
    • More reliable
  • Costs
    • New designs
    • New manufacturing processes
integration options
Integration Options
  • Ceramic
  • Thin film on Si
  • IC Integration
    • Horrible
barriers to embedded passives
Barriers to Embedded Passives
  • Risk
  • No reworkability
  • Cost
    • But wait until 2004!
embedded passives technology
Embedded Passives Technology
  • R
    • Thick film ~100-1M Ω/square
    • Thin film ~25-100 Ω/square
  • C
    • Typical inorganic is 50 nF/cm2
    • GE has gotten ~200 nF/cm2 with inorganics
    • Polymer-ceramic components can get 4-25 nF/cm2
  • L
    • Okay in embedded if <100 nH
    • Discrete recommended for >100 nH