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IEEE 802.18 Radio Regulatory TAG. Proposal for Part 15.244 Cognitive Radio Operation in the TV Band. Outline. Introduction TV Band Incumbents Identifying Characteristics of Incumbents Elements of Cognitive Radio Operation Proposed Cognitive Radio Rules

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • TV Band Incumbents
  • Identifying Characteristics of Incumbents
  • Elements of Cognitive Radio Operation
  • Proposed Cognitive Radio Rules
  • Analysis for Personal/Portable Devices
    • Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices
    • Detection of DTV Signals
    • DFS Sensitivity vs DTV Service Contour Field Strength
    • Co-Channel Interference Range Margin
    • Terrain Blocking
  • Analysis for Fixed Devices
  • Wrap Up

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

introduction

Kenwood FreeTalk XL and the TalkAbout Distance and DPS radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters.

Many other factors can affect the range of these radios:Terrain - flat land, hills, or mountainsFoliage - woodlands, jungle, plains, or urban areasWeatherBuildings and StructuresBattery Condition

The range you can expect will vary depending upon the conditions and terrain you use the radios in. General "Rule of Thumb" for Radio RangeAll other factors being equal:To achieve twice the range, 4 times the output power is necessary.If the antenna height is tripled then you have the potential to double your range.These concepts are very broad "rules of thumb" and your results may vary.

On site business radios such as the Kenwood ProTalk T3100 or Motorola Spirit use UHF frequencies very similar to UHF GMRS frequencies. Performance of these radios will be identical to the UHF GMRS radios listed above. Kenwood ProTalk TK3100 radios can be dealer programmed for use on commercial UHF repeater systems.

2 Watt UHF GMRS RadiosFreeTalk XL TK3101ProTalk TK3100Motorola TalkAbout Distance

VHF frequencies are better suited for outdoor applications requiring maximum coverage areas. The VHF signals penetrate natural foliage and vegetation much better than the higher UHF frequencies. VHF frequencies are more susceptable to man made objects like steel, steel reinforced concrete buildings. In most cases, outdoors in rural environments a 2 watt VHF radio will have 50% more range than a 2 watt UHF radio.

1 Watt UHFGMRS RadiosFreeTalk XLSProTalk XLS

1/2 Watt FRSFamily RadiosMotorola TallkAbout FRS

2 Watt VHF RadiosProTalk TK21002 Watt MURS

FRS radios like the Motorola TalkAbout use "Family Radio Service" UHF frequencies and do not require a FCC license. FRS radios are required to have a maximum 1/2 watt power output. Their range is normally 1/2 of the GMRS 2 watt radios.

OutsideClear Flat Terrain

1/2 to 3/4 mile15 floors

1/2 mile10 Floors

1 mile20 floors

More Kenwood Radio Information

Two Way Radio Range Guidelines

2 Watt VHF Business and MURS Radios

2 Watt UHF Business Radios

GMRS Radios

Other Factors

FRS Radios

Frequencies and Codes

TK3100 UHF ProTalk

TK3131 FreeTalk XLS

Suburban Neighborhoods

Terrain

Urban Areas

Woodlands, Thick Vegetation

TK3101 FreeTalk XL

TK3130 ProTalk XLS

Between Buildings or Houses

Accessories

FCC Licensing Info

TK2100 VHF ProTalk

Woodlands, Moderate Vegetation

Inside Buildings or Malls

1/2 mile or 5 floors

1/2 to 1.5 miles

1/2 to 1.5 miles

1/8 to 1/2 mile

1.5 to 3 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1.5 to 2 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1.5 to 2 miles

1/2 to 2 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1.5 to 2 miles

These figures are averages based upon our tests and customer feedback. Your results will vary depending upon obstructions, elevation, terrain, vegetation and building construction.

1.5 to 2 miles

1/2 to 1 mile

1/2 to 1 mile

1/2 to 1 mile

2 to 3 miles

1 to 2 miles

2 to 3 miles

1 to 2 miles

3 to 5 miles

1 to 3 miles

3 to 4 miles

Introduction
  • On May 13, 2004, the FCC adopted ET Docket No. 04-186, “Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands” in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM).
  • As written, ET-04-186 proposes the following two classes of devices under a new rules section, Part 15.244:
  • Personal/Portable Devices
    • 100 mW peak transmitter power, 400 mW peak EIRP (6 dBi antenna)
    • Transmission is permitted only when receiving a control signal indicating which TV channels are vacant from one of the following sources: a TV Broadcast station, an FM Broadcast station, or an unlicensed transmitter
  • Fixed Access Devices
    • 1 W peak transmitter power, 4 W peak EIRP (6 dBi antenna)
    • Must meet one of the following criteria
      • Include a GPS receiver and means of determining vacant TV channels in the area
      • Be installed by professionals to operate only on unused channels.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

introduction4

Kenwood FreeTalk XL and the TalkAbout Distance and DPS radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters.

Many other factors can affect the range of these radios:Terrain - flat land, hills, or mountainsFoliage - woodlands, jungle, plains, or urban areasWeatherBuildings and StructuresBattery Condition

The range you can expect will vary depending upon the conditions and terrain you use the radios in. General "Rule of Thumb" for Radio RangeAll other factors being equal:To achieve twice the range, 4 times the output power is necessary.If the antenna height is tripled then you have the potential to double your range.These concepts are very broad "rules of thumb" and your results may vary.

On site business radios such as the Kenwood ProTalk T3100 or Motorola Spirit use UHF frequencies very similar to UHF GMRS frequencies. Performance of these radios will be identical to the UHF GMRS radios listed above. Kenwood ProTalk TK3100 radios can be dealer programmed for use on commercial UHF repeater systems.

2 Watt UHF GMRS RadiosFreeTalk XL TK3101ProTalk TK3100Motorola TalkAbout Distance

VHF frequencies are better suited for outdoor applications requiring maximum coverage areas. The VHF signals penetrate natural foliage and vegetation much better than the higher UHF frequencies. VHF frequencies are more susceptable to man made objects like steel, steel reinforced concrete buildings. In most cases, outdoors in rural environments a 2 watt VHF radio will have 50% more range than a 2 watt UHF radio.

1 Watt UHFGMRS RadiosFreeTalk XLSProTalk XLS

1/2 Watt FRSFamily RadiosMotorola TallkAbout FRS

2 Watt VHF RadiosProTalk TK21002 Watt MURS

FRS radios like the Motorola TalkAbout use "Family Radio Service" UHF frequencies and do not require a FCC license. FRS radios are required to have a maximum 1/2 watt power output. Their range is normally 1/2 of the GMRS 2 watt radios.

OutsideClear Flat Terrain

1/2 to 3/4 mile15 floors

1/2 mile10 Floors

1 mile20 floors

More Kenwood Radio Information

Two Way Radio Range Guidelines

2 Watt VHF Business and MURS Radios

2 Watt UHF Business Radios

GMRS Radios

Other Factors

FRS Radios

Frequencies and Codes

TK3100 UHF ProTalk

TK3131 FreeTalk XLS

Suburban Neighborhoods

Terrain

Urban Areas

Woodlands, Thick Vegetation

TK3101 FreeTalk XL

TK3130 ProTalk XLS

Between Buildings or Houses

Accessories

FCC Licensing Info

TK2100 VHF ProTalk

Woodlands, Moderate Vegetation

Inside Buildings or Malls

1/2 mile or 5 floors

1/2 to 1.5 miles

1/2 to 1.5 miles

1/8 to 1/2 mile

1.5 to 3 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1.5 to 2 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1.5 to 2 miles

1/2 to 2 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1.5 to 2 miles

These figures are averages based upon our tests and customer feedback. Your results will vary depending upon obstructions, elevation, terrain, vegetation and building construction.

1.5 to 2 miles

1/2 to 1 mile

1/2 to 1 mile

1/2 to 1 mile

2 to 3 miles

1 to 2 miles

2 to 3 miles

1 to 2 miles

3 to 5 miles

1 to 3 miles

3 to 4 miles

Introduction
  • Although ET 04-186 seeks comment on the possibility of using spectrum sensing, and other cognitive radio techniques, to identify and avoid TV channels occupied by an incumbent, and select channels for unlicensed operation, the Commission’s proposed rules sections do not permit that approach.
  • This presentation does the following:
    • Proposes a set of rules for an additional class of devices which permit cognitive radio technologies to be used in unlicensed devices operating in the TV band under Part 15.244.
    • Establishes that devices operating under these rules protect the operations of TV band incumbents based on widely available operational data and supporting analysis.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

tv band incumbents

Kenwood FreeTalk XL and the TalkAbout Distance and DPS radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters.

Many other factors can affect the range of these radios:Terrain - flat land, hills, or mountainsFoliage - woodlands, jungle, plains, or urban areasWeatherBuildings and StructuresBattery Condition

The range you can expect will vary depending upon the conditions and terrain you use the radios in. General "Rule of Thumb" for Radio RangeAll other factors being equal:To achieve twice the range, 4 times the output power is necessary.If the antenna height is tripled then you have the potential to double your range.These concepts are very broad "rules of thumb" and your results may vary.

On site business radios such as the Kenwood ProTalk T3100 or Motorola Spirit use UHF frequencies very similar to UHF GMRS frequencies. Performance of these radios will be identical to the UHF GMRS radios listed above. Kenwood ProTalk TK3100 radios can be dealer programmed for use on commercial UHF repeater systems.

2 Watt UHF GMRS RadiosFreeTalk XL TK3101ProTalk TK3100Motorola TalkAbout Distance

VHF frequencies are better suited for outdoor applications requiring maximum coverage areas. The VHF signals penetrate natural foliage and vegetation much better than the higher UHF frequencies. VHF frequencies are more susceptable to man made objects like steel, steel reinforced concrete buildings. In most cases, outdoors in rural environments a 2 watt VHF radio will have 50% more range than a 2 watt UHF radio.

1 Watt UHFGMRS RadiosFreeTalk XLSProTalk XLS

1/2 Watt FRSFamily RadiosMotorola TallkAbout FRS

2 Watt VHF RadiosProTalk TK21002 Watt MURS

FRS radios like the Motorola TalkAbout use "Family Radio Service" UHF frequencies and do not require a FCC license. FRS radios are required to have a maximum 1/2 watt power output. Their range is normally 1/2 of the GMRS 2 watt radios.

OutsideClear Flat Terrain

1/2 to 3/4 mile15 floors

1/2 mile10 Floors

1 mile20 floors

More Kenwood Radio Information

Two Way Radio Range Guidelines

2 Watt VHF Business and MURS Radios

2 Watt UHF Business Radios

GMRS Radios

Other Factors

FRS Radios

Frequencies and Codes

TK3100 UHF ProTalk

TK3131 FreeTalk XLS

Suburban Neighborhoods

Terrain

Urban Areas

Woodlands, Thick Vegetation

TK3101 FreeTalk XL

TK3130 ProTalk XLS

Between Buildings or Houses

Accessories

FCC Licensing Info

TK2100 VHF ProTalk

Woodlands, Moderate Vegetation

Inside Buildings or Malls

1/2 mile or 5 floors

1/2 to 1.5 miles

1/2 to 1.5 miles

1/8 to 1/2 mile

1.5 to 3 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1.5 to 2 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1.5 to 2 miles

1/2 to 2 miles

1 to 1.5 miles

1.5 to 2 miles

These figures are averages based upon our tests and customer feedback. Your results will vary depending upon obstructions, elevation, terrain, vegetation and building construction.

1.5 to 2 miles

1/2 to 1 mile

1/2 to 1 mile

1/2 to 1 mile

2 to 3 miles

1 to 2 miles

2 to 3 miles

1 to 2 miles

3 to 5 miles

1 to 3 miles

3 to 4 miles

TV Band Incumbents
  • Full Service TV Broadcast Stations (CFR1 Title 47 Part 73).
    • Class A TV Broadcast Stations (CFR Title 47 Part 73 subpart J).
    • LPTV, TV Translator, TV Booster Stations, Auxiliary Operations, and Wireless Microphones (CFR Title 47 Part 74).
    • Private Land Mobile Radio Services (PLMRS) in 13 Metro Areas (CFR Title 47 Part 90), including Public Safety communications systems.
    • Commercial Land Mobile Radio Services (CMRS) in 13 Metro Areas (CFR Title 47 Part 20).
    • Wireless Medical Telemetry Services (WMTS) (CFR Title 47 Part 95 subpart H).

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

tv band incumbent protection from cognitive devices
TV Band Incumbent Protection from Cognitive Devices
  • In order to insure that public safety operations are protected, Ch 14-20 are excluded from the proposed cognitive radio class of operation.
  • Wireless Medical Telemetry Services operate on Ch 37 within the TV band, which is excluded by the Commission’s proposed rules from Part 15.244 device operations.
  • Wireless microphone operation as a Low Power Auxiliary Station under Part 74 can protected by cognitive techniques, or by rule (assignment to specific channels in each service area, etc). This presentation does not address wireless microphones.
  • Wireless video assist devices are provided for as Low Power Auxiliary Devices in Part 74, but no equipment is presently authorized or licensed for operation. This class of equipment should be considered for termination.
  • The remaining incumbents are TV broadcast signals, which, because of their unique signatures (analog/NTSC, and digital/ATSC), are readily identifiable.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

analog tv ntsc spectrum
Analog TV (NTSC) Spectrum
  • Power primarily confined to Video and Audio carriers.
  • Distinctive double peaked spectrum makes identification by spectrum profiling relatively easy.
  • Relatively high narrowband power levels compared to DTV.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

digital tv atsc spectrum
Digital TV (ATSC) Spectrum
  • Power spread over center 5.38 MHz within a TV channnel.
  • Pilot tone is a distinctive feature when observed in a narrowband receiver.
  • Pilot tone power is 11.3 dB below average power measured in a 6 MHz bandwidth.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

elements of cognitive radio operation 1
Elements of Cognitive Radio Operation (1)
  • Network Frequency Allocation (NFA):
    • Survey and monitor spectrum use patterns.
    • Avoid incumbents, operate network on an unused or lightly used channel.
  • Link Power Control (LPC):
    • Keep network transmitter power low while maintaining good link quality.
    • LPC mitigates interference and promotes frequency reuse with networks located nearby.
  • Incumbent Profile Detection (IPD):
    • Detect incumbent users based on specific spectrum signature (supports NFA)
      • Example: detecting the presence of a sound/video carriers in NTSC (analog TV) systems or a pilot tone in ATSC (DTV) systems.
  • Collision Detection And Avoidance (CDAA):
    • Transmitters wait until the channel is quiet before transmitting (“listen before talk”).
    • A receiving node acknowledges valid data by transmitting a response.
    • A transmitting node “detects” a collision if it does not receive an acknowledgement before a timeout occurs.
    • The protocol implements an appropriate backoff/retry timing mechanism for retransmission when a collision is detected.

1. Notor, J., Radio Architectures for Unlicensed Reuse of Broadcast TV Channels, Communications Design Conference 2003.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

proposed cognitive radio rules
Proposed Cognitive Radio Rules
  • These rules extend the FCC’s proposed rules for Part 15.244 devices to authorize cognitive radio techniques.
  • Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) threshold: a TV channel shall be considered unoccupied when the electric field strength at the receiving antenna is less than the following averaged for 10 ms over the entire 6 MHz channel.
    • For Ch 5-6, E(dBu) < -7 dBuV/m/10 kHz
    • For Ch 7-13, E(dBu) < 1 dBuV/m/10 kHz
    • For Ch 21-51, excluding Ch 37 E(dBu) < 11 dBuV/m/10 kHz
  • To operate on a channel whose ambient field strength is greater than the DFS threshold, the cognitive device must, using appropriate Incumbent Profile Detection techniques, verify that the channel is not being occupied by either an analog or a digital TV signal.
  • The cognitive radio network shall give priority to operation on empty or lightly occupied channels.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

proposed cognitive radio rules11
Proposed Cognitive Radio Rules
  • Transmit Power Control (TPC)
    • Link Power Control protocols must be included in the cognitive radio devices to minimize transmitter power while supporting reliable communications between any transmitter and any single receiver.
    • The LPC protocol operation shall cause the transmitter in any single node to single node link to begin reducing output power when the signal level at the receiver is greater than 20 dB above the receiver’s nominal sensitivity.
    • The TPC function shall keep the signal level at the receiver less than 30 dB above the receiver’s nominal sensitivity at least 50% of the time, including the impact of any regular broadcast operations (transmission from a controlling node to all other nodes).
  • Listen Before Talk
    • The transmitters must operate in burst mode, with a maximum continuous burst length less than 1 second.
    • Cognitive radio devices must monitor the operational channel periodically to verify that the channel remains unoccupied by an analog or digital TV signal.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

analysis for personal portable devices
Analysis for Personal/Portable Devices
  • The following analyses establishes the performance limits of cognitive radio operation for personal/portable devices:
    • Expected loss exponent (L.E.) for personal/portable operation.
    • Detection performance for DTV signals.
    • DFS sensitivity margin.
    • Co-channel interference range margin.
    • Terrain blocking footprint and issues.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

operating range of personal portable devices
Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices

Table 1: Range data based on customer survey information (2)

2. Table provided by Southern Communications and Electronics at the following web site:

http://www.southernce.com/cgi-bin/SoftCart.exe/range.htm?L+scstore+josy3749+1088643303

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

operating range of personal portable devices14
Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices
  • VHF Loss Exponent estimates based on the operational characteristics of MURS radio handsets (151.820 MHz < fc < 154.600 MHz).
    • Sensitivity: 0.2 uV at limit of range, or -121 dBm
    • Antenna Gain: 0 dBi
    • Tx Power: 2 W (+33 dBm)
    • Loss to limit of sensitivity: 33 – (-121) = 154 dB.
    • Loss Exponent (LE) = 154/[10*log(d)], where d is the range in m.
  • Table 2: Anecdotal range data based on Table 1 with loss exponent:

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

operating range of personal portable devices15
Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices
  • UHF Loss Exponent estimates based on the operational characteristics of FRS radio handsets (462.5625 MHz < fc < 467.7125 MHz).
    • Sensitivity: 0.2 uV at limit of range, or -121 dBm
    • Antenna Gain: 0 dBi
    • Tx Power: 500 mW (+27 dBm)
    • Loss to limit of sensitivity: 27 – (-121) = 148 dB.
    • Loss Exponent (LE) = 148/[10*log(d)], where d is the range in m.
  • Table 3: Anecdotal range data from various sources with loss exponent:

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

operating range of personal portable devices16
Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices
  • VHF/UHF Loss Exponent (LE) range: 4-5.7
  • Loss exponents by environment:
    • Clear flat terrain: LE = 4
    • Outdoor suburban/urban environment: LE = 4.3 - 4.9
    • Indoor to indoor, 15th floor hotel room to hotel lobby: LE = 4.4
    • Inside shopping mall: 5.3-5.7
  • Operational experience based on loss exponent analysis tracks well between VHF and UHF portable radios.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

detection of dtv signals
Detection of DTV Signals
  • DTV is the limiting case re: DFS/IPD for TV signals.
  • Receiver Assumptions:
    • CNR: 6 dB is sufficient for detection of a narrowband signal like an ATSC pilot tone.
    • NF: 5 dB
    • Antenna Gain: 0 dBi
    • Predetection Bandwidth: 10 kHz
    • Post Detection Time Constant: 10 ms
    • Square Law Detector
  • Sensitivity Calculation (CNR = 6 dB)

S = -174 dBm/Hz + 10log(10 kHz) + 5 dB + 6 dB

S = -123 dBm

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

detection of dtv signals18
Detection of DTV Signals
  • For a DFS detection threshold of -123 dBm/10 kHz applied to identifying a DTV signal by detecting the pilot tone, the equivalent clear channel DFS threshold for a DTV signal becomes:
    • DTV DFS = -123 dBm + 11.3 dB = -111.7 dBm ~ -112 dBm in a 6 MHz bandwidth
    • -112 dBm is below the thermal noise floor for a 6 MHz bandwidth, i.e. Np = -174 dBm + 10log(6 MHz) = -106.2 dBm > -112 dBm, but the analysis remains valid, since the pilot tone can be detected in a 10 kHz bandwidth.
  • Assuming a 0 dBi antenna and a 50 Ohm reference impedance, the equivalent DFS threshold in terms of electric field strength in a 6 MHz bandwidth is
    • E(dBu) = P(dBm) + 20log[f(MHz)] + 77.2
    • For Ch 6, E(dBu) = -112 + 20log[85] + 77.2 = 4 dBuV/m
    • For Ch 13, E(dBu) = 12 dBuV/m
    • For Ch 51, E(dBu) = 22 dBuV/m

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

dfs sensitivity margin personal portable devices
DFS Sensitivity Margin - Personal/Portable Devices
  • The sensitivity margin relative to the minimum in-service DTV field strength for a 30 ft high receive antenna is:
    • For Ch 6, margin = 28 – 4 = 24 dB
    • For Ch 13, margin = 36 – 12 = 24 dB
    • For Ch 51, margin = 41 – 22 = 19 dB
  • For a receiver outdoor antenna height of 2 m (nomadic personal/portable device), reduce the sensitivity margin by a 9 dB correction factor (3).
  • Table 4 (p.19) shows sensitivity margin calculations for various stations in the FCC database, using the FCC calculator at: http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/curves.html.
  • The DFS detector operating outdoors with an antenna height of 2 m can sense a TV channel outdoors at ranges > 21% farther than the service contour (Table 4) in unobstructed terrain.

3. Mehrotra, A., Cellular Radio Performance Engineering, Artech House, 1994, p146

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

table 4 dfs sensitivity margin personal portable devices
Table 4: DFS Sensitivity Margin – Personal/Portable Devices

4. The DFS limit is calculated at a 2 m antenna height, assuming a 9 dB loss relative to signal strength at 30 ft (~9 m). So, for Ch 6, DFS Limit =4 dBuV/m + 9 dB =13 dBu. These calculations exclude terrain blockage effects.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

co channel interference range margin
Co-Channel Interference Range Margin
  • Part 15.244 Device Tx Operating Parameters:
    • EIRP: 400 mW, or +26 dBm
    • E(dBu) = 104.8 + EIRP(dBm) – 20*log(D) = 131 dBu at D = 1 m.
    • Loss exponent (LE): 4 (lower limit of operational experience for portable devices).
  • DTV Co-channel D/U: 23 dB at the edge of the service area.
  • Maximum allowed co-channel interference field strength at the edge of the service contour (Full service DTV)
    • Ch 5-6: 28 – 23 = 5 dBu
    • Ch 7-13: 36 – 23 = 13 dBu
    • Ch 14-51: 41 – 23 = 18 dBu
  • Interference Range (R), LE = 4, to DTV co-channel D/U = 23 dB limit
    • Ch 5-6: R = 10[(131 – 5) / 40] = 1.4 km
    • Ch 7-13: R = 891 m
    • Ch 14-51: R = 668 m

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

co channel interference range margin22
Co-Channel Interference Range Margin
  • FCC propagation calculations indicate that a unlicensed spectrum sensing device operating outdoors can sense a DTV signal 22-60 km outside the service contour of a DTV station, excluding terrain blocking effects.
  • The range of a Part 15.244 personal/portable device transmitter operating at a +26 dBm EIRP to the field strength limit for an undesired co-channel signal within a service contour is 668 m to 1.4 km.
  • So, DTV services areas are protected by a buffer zone (excluding terrain blockage effects) of greater than 20 km using spectrum sensing techniques.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

co channel interference range margin23
Co-Channel Interference Range Margin

Limit of DFS Sensing Capability

DTV Service Area

22-60 km

Edge of

Service

Contour

Cognitive Radio Range to 23 dB D/U Limit

R <1.4 km

(+26 dBm EIRP, LE = 4)

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

terrain blocking
Terrain Blocking
  • Reduces the available signal level significantly in the blocked area relative to adjacent unblocked areas due to terrain features: mountains, buildings, interior walls. Example terrain blocking losses:
    • 40 dB over an 8 km stretch in Virginia for 50% of the cases, much fewer instances of 40 dB change for smaller geographic segments (5)
    • 37 dB over a ~ 4 km stretch in Boulder, CO (6) (see p24)
    • 27 dB over an ~ 2.4 km stretch (7) in Boulder, CO (see p.25)
    • 10 dB for building shadowing losses, and 10-20 dB for building penetration losses (8,9) (see p 26). Note: For the data in Table 5, the indoor antenna was placed next to a window on the same side of the building where the outdoor signal strength was measured, which tends to produce more optimistic results than otherwise.
  • Reduces the range margin at the edge of a service contour over that available in an unblocked situation.

5. McHenry & Byrnes, Shared Spectrum Company Comments to FCC ET-02-380, p9

6. Holoway, Sanders, & McKenna, NTIA Report 01-387, p24 and Figure 14

7. Holoway, Sanders, & McKenna, NTIA Report 01-387, p24 and Figure 16

8. McHenry & Byrnes, Shared Spectrum Company Comments to FCC ET-02-380, p.6

8. Salehian, Khalil, Comparison Between the Field Strength of DTV Signals Inside and Outside of the Buildings, Communications Research Centre Canada.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

geographic terrain blocking
Geographic Terrain Blocking

~ 4 km

1.3 V/m

37 dB

0.018 V/m

Figure 14 reproduced from Holoway, Sanders, & McKenna, NTIA Report 01-387

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

geographic terrain blocking26
Geographic Terrain Blocking

~ 2.4 km

1.2 V/m

27 dB

0.055 V/m

Figure 16 reproduced from Holoway, Sanders, & McKenna, NTIA Report 01-387

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

terrain blocking by buildings
Terrain Blocking By Buildings

Table 5: Outdoor to Indoor Propagation Data (10)

(10) Ibid, adapted from the original CRC Canada report, including the addition of the last two columns of analysis.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

terrain blocking mitigation
Terrain Blocking Mitigation
  • Limit transmit power of personal/portable devices.
    • At +26 dBm EIRP, the range of personal/portable devices to the co-channel D/U threshold is < 1.4 km on Ch 5-6, < 900 m on higher frequency channels, i.e., less than the expected shadow footprint (see p.28).
    • Using TPC reduces the interference range by reducing network aggregate transmitter power.
    • Burst mode operation reduces the impact of transmissions to DTV operation relative to the assumption of continuous operation built into the D/U regulatory limits.
  • Require all devices to include DFS/IPD capability, not just access points
    • If all devices include DFS/IPD capability, the spectrum sensing footprint is increased, reducing the probability that an occupied channel will go undetected.
    • Avoids the possibility of a shadowed master control device accidentally trying to set up the network co-channel with a TV broadcast incumbent.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

co channel interference in blocked terrain
Co-Channel Interference in Blocked Terrain

DTV Service Area

Terrain Shadow

Lb

Cognitive Radio Range to 23 dB D/U 668 m < R <1.4 km at +26 dBm EIRP

Edge of

Service

Contour

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

slide30

Analysis for Fixed Devices

  • The following analyses establishes the performance limits of cognitive radio operation for fixed devices:
    • DFS sensitivity margin.
    • Co-channel interference range margin.
    • Terrain blocking footprint and issues.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

dfs sensitivity margin fixed devices
DFS Sensitivity Margin – Fixed Devices
  • The sensitivity margin relative to the minimum in-service DTV field strength for a 30 ft high receive antenna is:
    • For Ch 6, margin = 28 – 4 = 24 dB
    • For Ch 13, margin = 36 – 12 = 24 dB
    • For Ch 51, margin = 41 – 22 = 19 dB
  • Table 6 (p.32) shows sensitivity margin calculations for various stations in the FCC database, using the FCC calculator at: http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/curves.html.
  • The DFS detector operating outdoors with an antenna height of 30 ft (~9 m) can sense a TV channel outdoors at ranges > 46% farther than the service contour (Table 6) in unobstructed terrain.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

table 6 dfs sensitivity margin fixed devices
Table 6: DFS Sensitivity Margin – Fixed Devices

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

interference range margin fixed devices
Interference Range Margin – Fixed Devices
  • Table 7 shows the interference range margin for 23 dB D/U, assuming 30 m base station antenna height and 9 m client antenna height.
  • The interference range margin is 58 – 213 km (see p34).

Table 7: Interference Range Margin

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

co channel interference range margin34
Co-Channel Interference Range Margin

Limit of DFS Sensing Capability

DTV Service Area

89-234 km

Edge of

Service

Contour

Cognitive Radio Range to 23 dB D/U Limit

R < 31 km

(+36 dBm EIRP)

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

wrap up
Wrap Up
  • Based on the proposed rules, the operational data, and the analysis presented herein, cognitive devices using spectrum sensing techniques can reliably operate in the TV band without causing interference to TV broadcast channels.
  • The cognitive radio mode of operation is proposed as an addition to the rules for Part 15.244 devices already proposed by the FCC in the TV Band NPRM.
  • The application of cognitive radio technology to TV band unlicensed operation is an important step in realizing the full potential for a wide range of centralized and distributed networks utilizing otherwise unoccupied spectrum.

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • The following organizations and individuals were immensely helpful in preparing this presentation:
    • The Berkeley Wireless Research Center, especially
      • Professor Robert W. Brodersen
      • Gary Kelson
      • Danielja Cabric’
    • The Communications Research Centre Canada, especially
      • Gerald Chouinard
      • David Rogers
      • Khalil Salehian
    • Intel Corporation, especially
      • Jeffrey Schiffer
      • Alan E. Waltho

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.

acknowledgements37
Acknowledgements
  • Shared Spectrum Corporation, especially
    • Mark McHenry
    • William Byrnes
  • Professor Adam Wolisz, Technische Universitat Berlin
  • Michael Lynch, Nortel
  • Denis Kuwahara, Boeing

John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc.