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Qualities of Effective Leaders. May 19, 2013 James H. Stronge strongeandassociates.com. Leading and teaching is challenging work. What do good principals do?. Design a Principal. Personal Qualities. Caring Commitment Fairness Focus Professional Etc. What do Good Principals Do?.

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qualities of effective leaders

Qualities of Effective Leaders

May 19, 2013

James H. Stronge

strongeandassociates.com

slide5

Personal Qualities

  • Caring
  • Commitment
  • Fairness
  • Focus
  • Professional
  • Etc.
what do good principals do
What do Good Principals Do?

Instructional

Leadership

School

Climate

Professionalism

The

Principal

Human

Resources

Management

Communication & Community Relations

Organizational

Management

instructional leadership
Instructional Leadership
  • Principals of high-achieving schools have a clear vision and communicate to all stakeholders that learning is the school’s most important mission.
  • A transformational leadership style yields greater student achievement effects than an instructional leadership style.
  • Effective principals understand that they cannot reach instructional goals alone, so they distribute leadership across their schools, which in turn contributes to sustainable improvements within the school organization.
instructional leadership1
Instructional Leadership
  • Principals of high-achieving schools have a clear vision and communicate to all stakeholders that learning is the school’s most important mission(Cotton, 2003; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005; Zmuda, Kuklis, & Kline, 2004).
  • FALSE! A transformational leadership style yields greater student achievement effects than an instructional leadership style.There is growing evidence that basic “instructional” leadership activities have a greater impact on student learning than a focus on transformational leadership (Hattie, 2009).
  • Effective principals understand that they cannot reach instructional goals alone, so they distribute leadership across their schools, which in turn contributes to sustainable improvements within the school organization (Blasé & Blasé, 1999; Hargreaves & Fink, 2003).
school climate
School Climate
  • There is a positive relationship between school climate and leadership, which affects overall school effectiveness.
  • Attempting to change the prevailing culture of a school is one of the more time-consuming, yet easiest tasks of the school leader.
  • Relationship-building and stakeholder involvement are of fundamental importance in establishing and sustaining school success.
school climate1
School Climate
  • There is a positive relationship between school climate and leadership, which affects overall school effectiveness (Barth, 2002; Hallinger, Bickman, & Davis, 1996; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005; Villani, 1997).
  • FALSE! Attempting to change the prevailing culture of a school is one of the more time-consuming, yet easiest tasks of the school leader. Attempting to change the prevailing culture of a school is one of the more difficult tasks of the school leader(Barth, 2002; Fullan, 2001).
  • Relationship-buildingand stakeholder involvement are of fundamental importance in establishing and sustaining school success (Cotton, 2003; Fullan, 2001; Kytheotis & Pashiartis, 1998; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005).
human resources management
Human Resources Management
  • The principals of effective schools work with ineffective teachers over an extended period of time to improve their performance.
  • Effective administrators provide the time, resources, and structure for meaningful professional development and recognize the teacher leadership within the building.
  • Principals who are risk takers and who help in problem solving are more likely to empower and retain teachers.
human resources management1
Human Resources Management
  • FALSE! The principals of effective schools work with ineffective teachers over an extended period of time to improve their performance.Principals of effective schools expect ineffective teachers to change, or they are removed(Mendro, 1998).
  • Effective administrators provide the time, resources, and structure for meaningful professional development and recognize the teacher leadership within the building (Blasé & Blasé, 2001; Cotton, 2003; Drago-Severson, 2004; Fullan, Bertani, & Quinn, 2004).
  • Principals who are risk takers and who help in problem solving are more likely to empower and retain teachers (Blasé & Blasé, 2001; Charlotte Advocates for Education, 2004).
organizational management
Organizational Management
  • Maintaining a safe and orderly environment can affect teaching and learning positively and is therefore a fundamental responsibility of school administrators.
  • Principals of effective schools respect teachers’ skills and judgment, but limit their autonomy in organizing and managing their classrooms.
  • The principal’s skill in organizational management (e.g., hiring, providing PD, managing budgets) has a greater impact on school effectiveness than observing in classrooms.
organizational management1
Organizational Management
  • Maintaining a safe and orderly environment can affect teaching and learning positively and is therefore a fundamental responsibility of school administrators (Cotton, 2003; Lashway, 2001; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005; Shellard, 2003).
  • FALSE! Principals of effective schools respect teachers’ skills and judgment, but limit their autonomy in organizing and managing their classrooms. Effective principals allow their teachers considerable autonomy in managing and organizing their classrooms (Cotton, 2003).
  • The principal’s skill in organizational management (e.g., hiring, providing PD, managing budgets) has a greater impact on school effectiveness than observing in classrooms (Horng, Klasik, & Loeb, 2009).
communication community relations
Communication & Community Relations
  • Successful school leaders must be able to work effectively with parent, community, business, and government representatives.
  • Relationship-building and stakeholder involvement are of fundamental importance in establishing and sustaining school success.
  • While important, principals seldom lose their jobs for negative interpersonal relationships.
communication community relations1
Communication & Community Relations
  • Successful school leaders must be able to work effectively with parent, community, business, and government representatives (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003).
  • Relationship-building and stakeholder involvement are of fundamental importance in establishing and sustaining school success (Cotton, 2003; Fullan, 2001; Kytheotis & Pashiartis, 1998; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005).
  • FALSE! While important, principals seldom lose their jobs for negative interpersonal relationships. The number one reason that principals lose their jobs is for negative interpersonal relationships (Davis, 1998).
professionalism
Professionalism
  • Effective principals communicate and model core values through their interactions with students and teachers; most importantly, they model that they care for and have a genuine concern for children.
  • Effective principals balance responsibilities associated with educating students with the needs of teachers.
  • Effective principals should receive professional development that focuses mainly on their roles and responsibilities.
professionalism1
Professionalism
  • Effective principals communicate and model core values through their interactions with students and teachers; most importantly, they model that they care for and have a genuine concern for children(Cotton, 2003).
  • Effective principals balance responsibilities associated with educating students with the needs of teachers (Gross & Shapiro, 2000; Tschannen-Moran, 2004)
  • FALSE! Effective principals should receive professional development that focuses mainly on their roles and responsibilities.Just as important is professional develop with a focus on the nuances of context that affect their decisions. The when and why are just as critical as the what and how(Waters & Grubb, 2004).
overall impact of principals
Overall Impact of Principals
  • The quickest way to change the effectiveness of a school, for better or worse, is to change the principal.
  • The principal variable accounts for between 2% and 8% of the variance in student test scores.
  • Principals in high performing schools place higher pressure on their teachers to perform well on standardized tests.
overall impact of principals1
Overall Impact of Principals
  • The quickest way to change the effectiveness of a school, for better or worse, is to change the principal.
  • The principal variable accounts for between 2% and 8% of the variance in student test scores.
  • False! Principals in high performing schools place higher pressure on their teachers to perform well on standardized tests.“Principals in lower performing schools are more likely to modify their leadership focus to place a greater emphasis on improving test scores. Principals in higher performing schools seemed to focus on educating the whole child rather than simply concentrating on raising test scores”(Reed et al., 2001).
quiz grading how d you do
Quiz “Grading”: How’d You Do?

# of Correct

Answers Classification

8+ You can’t count

6 – 7 Major genius

4 – 5 Regular sort of genius

2 – 3 Not too shabby

1 Thanks for playing; please try again

0 Good news! Zero is as low as you can go!

instructional leadership2
Instructional Leadership
  • Building a Vision
  • Sharing Leadership
  • Leading Learning Community
  • Using Data
  • Monitoring Curriculum & Instruction
school climate2
School Climate
  • Positive Climate
  • High Expectations
  • Practice of Respect
human resources management2
Human Resources Management
  • Selecting Quality Teachers & Others
  • Inducting & Supporting Staff
  • Providing Growth Opportunities
  • Retaining Quality Staff
  • Evaluating Teachers
hiring
Hiring

Effective principals know the hiring system and use the information to gain access to the best possible candidates.

Hallinger & Heck, 1996

slide27

Applicant Pool

Applicant Pool

Completed Applications

Completed Applications

Qualities of Effective Teachers

  • Interviews
  • Screening
  • Building
  • Superintendent
  • Add’l Sources
  • Performance
  • Reference Check

Decision

quick decision making
Quick Decision Making

How long does it take interviewers to make a decision about the suitability of the candidate?

fragmented hr functions
Fragmented HR Functions

Hire

Evaluate

Develop

aligned hr functions
Aligned HR Functions
  • Hire

Develop

  • Evaluate

Develop

grade inflation
Grade Inflation

Chicago: 2003-04 through 2007-08

Superior

25,332

Excellent

9,176

Satisfactory

2,232

Unsatisfactory

149

  • New Teacher Project, Widget Effect, 2009
a five point rating system
A Five-point Rating System?

Tucker, Stronge, Gareis, & Beers, EAQ, 2003

organizational management2
Organizational Management
  • Safety
  • Daily Operations
  • Facilities Maintenance
  • Securing & Using Resources
communication community relations2
Communication & Community Relations
  • Effective Communicator
  • Communicate with Families
  • Communicate with Larger Community
professionalism2
Professionalism
  • Ethical Standards
  • Role Model
  • Professional Development for the Principal
influences on student achievement explained variance
Influences on Student Achievement:Explained Variance

Hattie, http://acer.edu.au/documents (2003)

slide39

“ …the principal pipeline seems to leak”

Viadero, 2009, Oct 28, EdWeek, p. 14

average tenure of principals
Average Tenure of Principals
  • Elementary School = 4.96 years
  • Middle School = 4.48 years
  • High School = 3.38 years

Study of Texas 16,500+ principals, 1995-2008

Fuller & Young, 2009, UCEA

principal turnover
Principal Turnover

After 6 years – percentage still working as principals:

  • North Carolina: 48%
  • Illinois: 38%

Gates, RAND Corp., 2004

school principalship in australia
School Principalship in Australia
  • Decentralization.For more than 20 years, each of Australia’s six States and two Territories has pursued policies to restructure its once highly centralized bureaucratic government educational authorities (Wildy, Clarke, Styles, & Beycioglu, 2010).
  • School-based Management. The shift towards greater autonomy, efficiency and accountability has increased the complexity of principals’ work and placed more demands on the principals to do school-based management (Wildy & Louden, 2000), not just for finance and staffing but also for school development (Chrstie & Lingard, 2001).
  • Management vs Leadership.Increasing emphasis on educational leadership(McKenzie, Mulford, Anderson, 2007); however, managerial demands continually distract principals from their role in leading teaching and learning (Waston, 2007).
slide43

School Principalship in Australia

  • Urban & Rural. Australian society is highly urbanized with two-thirds of the population living in cities of more than 100,000 people; however there are a large number of small schools. One quarter of its schools are very small (under 100 students) and are located in rural and remote areas (Wildy et al., 2010).
  • Recruitment and Preparation. The number of applicants for the principalship is declining in Australia (Waston, 2007). Also, there are concerns about lack of leader preparation and lack of clarity of leaders’ roles and inadequate support (McKenzie et al., 2007).