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Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners in Reading First Classrooms. Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia. Today’s Goals. Examine the nature of the challenge Explore theory and research Identify effective strategies

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meeting the needs of english language learners in reading first classrooms

Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners in Reading First Classrooms

Michael C. McKenna

University of Virginia

today s goals
Today’s Goals
  • Examine the nature of the challenge
  • Explore theory and research
  • Identify effective strategies
  • Discuss an action plan at the district, school and classroom levels
  • Learn about Georgia’s ESOL program, regulations, and available resources
slide3

Some Common Terms

and Acronyms

  • Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
  • English-Language Learner (ELL)
  • English as a Second Language (ESL)
  • English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
  • English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)
  • First (Home) Language (L1)
  • Second Language (L2)
  • Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)
slide4

Some Common Terms

and Acronyms

slide5

The Plight

of ELLs

slide7

ELLs in Georgia Schools

From 1993 to 2004, the number of English language learners in Georgia rose from 11,877 to 59,126 – an increase of 397.8%.

Source: National Center for English Language Acquisition

slide9

More Georgia Stats . . .

Public school students in LEP Programs 4.3%

Hispanic students 6.9%

Asian/Pacific Islander 2.5%

Source: NAEP, 2005

slide11

Some Georgia Stats . . .

Percent of Georgia Fourth Graders

Reading below the “Basic” Level

Source: NAEP, 2005

slide13

U.S. v. Georgia at Grade 4

Percent of Hispanic Fourth Graders

Reading below the “Basic” Level

56

54

Source: NAEP, 2005

slide14

Nevada REA Study

In a Nevada REA study using PALS Composite Scores

(Oral Reading in Context plus Spelling, plus Word Recognition)

Percentage Below PALS Benchmark

– Helman, 2005

slide15

Nevada REA Study

– Helman, 2005

slide17

Four Types of ELL Programs

– Tabors & Snow, 2002

slide18

Which type of ELL program is best?

Let’s look at two recent research summaries.

slide19

Slavin and Cheung’s 2005 Meta-analysis of 17 Studies1

1Five studies reported no significant difference.

Bob Slavin

and friend

slide20

Report

of the

National Literacy Panel

on Language-Minority Children

May 2006

Developing Literacy in English-Language Learners

Tim Shanahan Diane August

slide21

Key Findings

  • In available studies, children in bilingual programs did at least as well as those in English-only programs.
  • Overall, a moderate effect size was observed across studies, favoring bilingual instruction.
  • Moreover, ELLs maintained their first language to a greater extent.
slide22

Some Questions We Can’t Yet Answer

  • If we teach L1 reading and writing, how soon is it safe to transition to English?
  • Does teaching higher levels of L1 reading make learning to read English any quicker?
  • How proficient must an ELL become in spoken English before reading instruction should begin?
  • How long can reading instruction in English be delayed for ELLs before their reading development is jeopardized?

– Tabors & Snow, 2002

slide23

Key Findings

  • Learning English is easier for ELL children aged 8- 9 with literacy skills in L1 than for children aged 5-6 without L1 literacy skills.
  • Immersion programs are not significantly better than programs in which L1 is used.
  • Bilingual children outperform monolingual children on metalinguistic tasks through age 6.
  • Oral proficiency in L2 is not a strong predictor of reading proficiency in L2 (due to other factors).

(Garcia, 2005)

slide24

Key Findings

  • L2 teacher read-alouds tend to be ineffective.
  • Prior knowledge often disadvantages ELLs.
  • Middle and high school bilinguals tend to use the same comprehension strategies in either language.
  • Abler bilinguals tend to “translate” more difficult material as they read, to use cognates in confronting unfamiliar words, and to code switch between sentences (i.e., reflect on meaning in L1).

(Garcia, 2005)

slide25

Key Findings

  • Close captioning can help as long as a certain threshold in L2 has been attained.
  • Culturally responsive teaching (through which teachers learn about the L2 culture and use this knowledge) can be helpful.

(Garcia, 2005)

slide26

Second

Language Acquisition

slide28

What happens to young children who are suddenly immersed in an English-speaking environment?

They go through four phases.

slide29

Four Phases of Transition to

Spoken English

1. ELLs use L1, expecting to be understood.

– They are often not understood, however.

2. ELLs grow silent.

– They realize L1 is not working for them.

3. ELLs begin using telegraphic and formulaic language.

– Telegraphic Examples:

Object names, counting

– Formulaic Examples:

Catch phrases (“Excuse me,” “I don’t know”)

4. ELLs gradually learn to use English productively.

– They blend formulaic with telegraphic speech

Examples: “I do a ice cream,” “I got a big”

– Tabors & Snow, 2002

slide30

Two Types of Oral English Proficiency

– Adapted from Drucker, 2003

slide31

Reading and Language Development of a Native Speaker

Foundation

of Spoken

English Develops

Reading Adds to

the Foundation

Reading Builds on

This Foundation

slide32

Reading and Language Development of an ELL in an English-Only Program

Foundation

of Spoken

English Is Limited

Foundation

of Spoken

Home Language

Is Stronger

slide33

Reading and Language Development of an ELL in an English-Only Program

Foundation

of Spoken

English Is Limited

Reading Must

Develop together

with Spoken English

Foundation

of Spoken

Home Language

Is Stronger

Reading Instruction

In Home Language

Is Not Provided

slide34

Reading and Language Development of an ELL in an English-Only Program

Foundation

of Spoken

English Is Limited

Reading Must

Develop together

with Spoken English

Reading Growth

Far Slower than

English-speakers

Foundation

of Spoken

Home Language

Is Stronger

Reading Instruction

In Home Language

Is Not Provided

Home Language

Spoken Proficiency

Declines

slide35

The Universal Grammar

  • A “hard-wired” system for oral language
  • Humans use this linguistic system to acquire L1
  • UG has 3 components (lexicon, rules, phonology)
  • The UG may be modular in nature (i.e., the 3 components may work independently)

Adapted from DeKeyser & Juffs (2005)

slide36

How L1 Affects Learning L2

  • Learning a new word in L2 requires access to concepts stored in L1 (except for fluent bilinguals)
  • L1 phonology influences L2 pronunciation

DeKeyser & Juffs (2005)

slide37

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

4 legs

/kat/

pet

lion

slide38

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

gato

4 legs

/kat/

pet

lion

slide39

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

gato

4 legs

/kat/

pet

lion

slide40

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

gato

4 legs

/kat/

pet

lion

slide41

animal

mammal

mamífero

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

gato

4 legs

/kat/

cuatro

piernas

pet

lion

animal

doméstico

león

slide43

Explicit vs. Implicit Learning

  • Most research supports explicit learning, but these studies are short-term.
  • “Formulas” are words and chunks deliberately memorized – an example of explicit learning.
  • Practice is required to make explicit knowledge more accessible and automatic.
  • Explicit teaching can “jump start” SLA, followed by providing conditions for long-term implicit learning.

DeKeyser & Juffs (2005)

slide44

Explicit vs. Implicit Learning

  • Implicit learning is more difficult for adults “because of restrictions on their implicit learning capacities” (p. 444)
  • L2 learners may not apply explicit knowledge

• unless they know the rules well,

• care to apply them, and

• have the time it takes to do so

(Krashen’s view)

  • Use of explicit knowledge can be automatized,

but this takes time and practice and may even then not be generalized to other situations.

DeKeyser & Juffs (2005)

slide45

The Competition Model

  • L1 plays a key role in acquiring and processing L2.
  • Learner will use L1 grammar to acquire L2.
  • Research is limited in that experimental conditions oversimplify actual language use.

DeKeyser & Juffs (2005)

slide46

Individual Differences

  • Aptitude

• Difficulties in defining; new measures clearly needed

• But research validates the concept

  • Age

• Puberty remains a key point in SLA

• But notion of a “critical period” for SLA is still debated

• Usually assumed to be 6-16 years of age

• May involve a shift from implicit to explicit learning

• Neuroimaging confirms that L2 is represented differently

DeKeyser & Juffs (2005)

slide47

Individual Differences

  • Working Memory

• Two constructs:

1. Phonological short-term memory (STM)

digit span, etc.

2. Reading Span Task (RST)

word recall from sentences

• Studies are inconclusive, perhaps due to measures

DeKeyser & Juffs (2005)

slide48

The Input Hypothesis

The only necessary and sufficient condition for SLA is comprehensible input. Learners at stage i will move to i + 1 if and when they understand input containing i + 1.

Steven Krashen (1982, 1985)

But studies of speaking and writing cast doubt on the input hypothesis.

(Swain, 2005)

slide49

The Output Hypothesis

Producing L2 in writing and/or speaking is essential to learning it.

Last few decades have seen a shift for output as product to output as process. (See p. 480.)

Three possible roles for output in L2 learning:

1. Noticing/Triggering Function

2. Hypothesis Testing Function

3. Metalinguistic (Reflective) Function

(Swain, 2005)

slide50

Noticing/Triggering Function

“the activity of producing the target language may prompt second language learners to recognize consciously some of their linguistic problems” (p. 474, original emphasis)

The student may “notice the gap” in their proficiency and try to fill it.

(Swain, 2005)

slide51

Hypothesis Testing Function

Output (speaking or writing) may be a “trial run.”

When a teacher or peer seeks clarification or requests confirmation, the L2 learner tends to modify the output in the future.

Lesson for teachers: Push ELLs to produce correct formulations of English, rather than accepting incorrect output simply because the meaning is clear.

Writing is a good opportunity to “push” for correctness.

(Swain, 2005)

slide52

Metalinguistic (Reflective) Function

“[U]sing language to reflect on language produced by others or the self mediates second language learning.” (p. 478)

This is a Vygotskyan perspective

“Psychological processes emerge first in collective behavior, in cooperation with other people, and only subsequently become internalized as the individual’s own possessions” (Stetsenko & Arievitch, 1997, p. 161).

Collaborative writing is especially conducive to reflecting on output.

(Swain, 2005)

slide53

Implications

for

Classroom Instruction

slide54

So where do teachers start?

Most cores have an ELL resource handbook and related materials. Start there. But let’s think about general advice.

slide55

So where do teachers start?

Let’s look at some key differences between Spanish and English.

slide58

Spanish vs. English

Spanish vowels always have the same sound:

slide59

Spanish vs. English

Short vowels are hard for Spanish-speaking children because most of these phonemes do not exist in Spanish!

slide60

Spanish vs. English

What are the implications of these differences for acquiring (and teaching) phonemic awareness and phonics?

slide61

Phonemic Awareness for

Spanish-Speaking ELLs

  • Children’s knowledge of Spanish phonology may influence how they acquire phonemic awareness in English.
  • They may find it hard at first to distinguish phonemes not heard in Spanish (e.g., v-b, s-sp, ch-sh).
  • Instruction in specific pairs has been shown to have positive results.

National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children, 2006

slide62

Phonemic Awareness for

Spanish-Speaking ELLs

  • Phonemic awareness in Spanish translates into English. That is, children can do similar tasks (segmenting, blending, etc.).
  • However, the specific phonemes are often different.
  • These differences are predictable.
  • Well-planned teaching leads to equal levels of phonemic awareness for ELLs and native English speakers.

Gersten & Geva, 2005

slide63

Phonics for Spanish-Speaking ELLs

  • Begin with sounds that English and Spanish share.
  • Start with vowels and consonants that represent sounds that are the same as or similar to the sounds they represent in Spanish (listed in previous slides).
  • Use your knowledge of Spanish to interpret misspellings. (Example: da might be written for the)
  • If you’re not comfortable with Spanish, ask the child to read what s/he has written and listen for letter-sound correspondences.

Helman, 2004

slide64

Phonics for Spanish-Speaking ELLs

  • A pronunciation error may reflect knowledge of Spanish.

Example: Saying seat for sit is common when the child has some reading ability in Spanish. It might also be an attempt to come as close as possible using a Spanish vowel sound.

  • Use low-stress activities to practice pronunciations.

Examples: choral reading, echo reading, sound sorting of pictures, poetry, songs

Helman, 2004

slide65

Phonics for Spanish-Speaking ELLs

  • Try using Venns and word walls to underscore similarities and differences in letter-sound correspondences. (See previous slides.)
  • Developmental spelling inventories can provide useful information about phonics skills (e.g., the one in Words Their Way by Bear et al.).
  • Short vowels should be taught before long vowels.

Helman, 2004

slide66

Phonics for Spanish-Speaking ELLs

  • Conduct think-alouds comparing English and Spanish.

“Teachers may verbalize their thinking in a modeled writing activity as they ponder which sounds they hear in a tricky word. They may even model being confused and self-correcting based on a Spanish sound.” (p. 458)

Helman, 2004

slide69

The Output Hypothesis suggests that teachers provide many opportunities for ELLs to talk and write.

Doing so also provides a window on their development of their English.

slide70

A central way for teachers to assess the learning and understanding of their ELLs is to give them myriad opportunities to write and talk during lessons. When ELLs are silent during extended periods of lesson times, it is not possible to know if or how much they are learning from lessons.

– Brock & Raphael, 2005, p. 51

slide71

Sheltered Instruction (SI)

“Sheltered instruction is an approach for teaching content to English learners in strategic ways that make the subject matter concepts comprehensible while promoting the students’ English language development.”

– Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2004, p. 2)

slide72

Sheltered Instruction (SI)

  • Content and language objectives are interwoven.
  • Most commonly applied at grades 4 and higher
slide73

Sheltered Instruction (SI)

  • Techniques often used in SI:
    • Visual aids
    • Modeling and demonstrations
    • Graphic organizers
    • Vocabulary overviews
    • Predictions
    • Cooperative learning
    • Peer tutoring
    • Multicultural content
slide75

Modified Discussions

  • Use frequent rewordings.
  • Put key terms on the board as you speak.
  • Translate key terms if you know them.
  • Speak clearly and at a moderate pace.
  • Use frequent review and summaries.
  • Pronounce key terms precisely.
  • Refer to pictures and diagrams.

– McKenna & Robinson, 2005

slide76

Word Webs

  • Connecting concepts in a web diagram places few demands on English literacy.
  • Relationships among words are stressed.
  • These relationships are made visible and concrete.
  • Webs can be used with fiction or nonfiction.

– Farnan, Flood & Lapp, 1994

slide77

Scaffolded Reading Experiences

(SREs)

What is an SRE?

“a set of prereading, during-reading, and postreading activities specifically designed to assist English-language learners in successfully reading, understanding, and learning from a particular selection.”

– Fitzgerald & Graves (2004, p. 15)

slide78

Scaffolded Reading Experiences

  • The best activities are often those that research has shown to be beneficial to native speakers as well.
  • Many options are available for use before, during and after reading. You must be selective. Consider the nature of the selection and the needs of your ELLs.
slide80

Possible SRE Prereading Activities

  • Using motivational approaches
  • Pointing out links to students’ lives
  • Building or activating prior knowledge

Let’s consider an example of how important this can be for ELLS.

slide81

It was the day of the big party.

Mary wondered if Johnny would like a kite. She ran to her bedroom, picked up her piggy bank, and shook it. There was no sound.

– Eskey, 2002, p. 6

What prior knowledge must the reader have in order to comprehend this brief passage?

Eskey, D.E. (2002). Reading and the teaching of L2 reading. TESOL Journal,

11(1), 5-9.

slide82

Possible SRE Prereading Activities

  • Using motivational approaches
  • Pointing out links to students’ lives
  • Building or activating prior knowledge
  • Providing text-specific knowledge
  • Preteaching vocabulary
  • Preteaching concepts
  • Prequestioning, predicting, and direction setting
  • Suggesting strategies
  • Using students’ native language
  • Involving ELL communities, parents, siblings
slide83

Possible SRE During-Reading Activities

  • Silent reading
  • Reading to students
  • Supported reading
  • Oral reading by students
  • Modifying the text
slide84

Possible SRE Postreading Activities

  • Questioning
  • Discussion
  • Writing
  • Drama
  • Artistic, graphic, and nonverbal activities
  • Application and outreach activities
  • Building connections
  • Reteaching
slide85

An SRE builds on a long tradition of nesting a reading selection in before, during and after activities.

Let’s examine which of the major lesson formats seem most promising.

Before During After

slide86

Major Lesson Formats

  • Directed Reading Activity (DRA)
  • Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)
  • K-W-L
  • Listen-Read-Discuss (L-R-D)

Before During After

slide87

DRA

Facts Students read to Discussion

Vocabulary complete tasks Writing

Text structure set by teacher

Before During After

slide88

DRA

Facts Students read to Discussion

Vocabulary complete tasks Writing

Text structure set by teacher

Before During After

slide89

DRA

Facts Students read to Discussion

Vocabulary complete tasks Writing

Text structure set by teacher

Before During After

slide90

DRA

Facts Students read to Discussion

Vocabulary complete tasks Writing

Text structure set by teacher

Before During After

slide91

5 Steps in a Classic DRA

Background (vocabulary, facts)

Focus (set specific purposes)

Silent Reading

Discussion

Skills, Extension, Enrichment

slide92

5 Steps in a Classic DRA

Background (vocabulary, facts)

Focus (set specific purposes)

Silent Reading

Discussion

Skills, Extension, Enrichment

Before

slide93

5 Steps in a Classic DRA

Background (vocabulary, facts)

Focus (set specific purposes)

Silent Reading

Discussion

Skills, Extension, Enrichment

Before

During

slide94

5 Steps in a Classic DRA

Background (vocabulary, facts)

Focus (set specific purposes)

Silent Reading

Discussion

Skills, Extension, Enrichment

Before

During

After

slide95

DR-TA

Before During After

slide96

DR-TA

Facts Students read to Discussion

Vocabulary test their own Writing

Text structure predictions

Before During After

slide97

DR-TA

Facts Students read to Discussion

Vocabulary test their own Writing

Text structure predictions

Before During After

slide98

DR-TA

Facts Students read to Discussion

Vocabulary test their own Writing

Text structure predictions

Before During After

slide99

K-W-L

Before During After

slide100

K-W-L

Students Students read to Discussion

brainstorm find out what of what they

what they Know they Want to know have Learned

Before During After

slide101

K-W-L

Students Students read to Discussion

brainstorm find out what of what they

what they Know they Want to know have Learned

Before During After

slide102

K-W-L

Students Students read to Discussion

brainstorm find out what of what they

what they Know they Want to know have Learned

Before During After

slide103

L-R-D

Before During After

slide104

L-R-D

Teacher fully Students read to Discussion

presents text complete tasks

content set by teacher

(Children might

listen to Spanish

version)

Before During After

slide105

L-R-D

Teacher fully Students read to Discussion

presents text complete tasks

content set by teacher

(Children might

listen to Spanish

version)

Before During After

slide106

L-R-D

Teacher fully Students read to Discussion

presents text complete tasks Writing

content set by teacher

(Children might

listen to Spanish

version)

Before During After

slide107

Which of these formats seem best suited to the needs of ELLs?

DRA

DR-TA

K-W-L

L-R-D

Might the issue depend on the age and English proficiency of the child?

slide108

Language Experience Approach (LEA)

  • Teacher plans a group experience, such as a field trip, demonstration, etc.
  • Students afterward dictate a passage based on the shared experience.
  • Teacher writes as students dictate.
  • Dictated passage becomes the basis of discussion and a reading lesson.
  • LEA controls for prior knowledge differences, although unpredictable cultural interpretations can occur.

– Drucker, 2003

slide109

Discussions in Small Groups

  • ELLs are sometimes intimidated into silence in whole-class settings.
  • They are more likely to talk in small groups.
  • Schedule small-group discussions with group make-up including both ELLs and native speakers.

– Brock & Raphael, 2005

slide110

Shared Reading

  • Teacher reads aloud

an enlarged text

that all students

can see.

  • Students can see text

as it is discussed.

  • Teacher can point

to key words, etc.

slide111

Paired Reading

  • Teacher pairs ELLs with native speakers.
  • Students read to each other, with native speaker providing support.
  • Could be tied to repeated readings, where native speaker reads a brief passage and ELL reads the same passage.
slide112

Building Prior Knowledge

  • Teacher tries to anticipate limitations of prior knowledge.
  • What does the author assume the child knows and that the child may not.
  • Look for ways to build prior knowledge quickly and coherently.

– Drucker, 2003

slide113

Audio Books

  • Teacher provides a tape of the reading selection, perhaps in a listening center.
  • ELLs follow along as they listen.
  • A minimal level of reading ability is required for this approach to be effective.

– Drucker, 2003

slide114

Teacher Read-Alouds

  • Read-alouds can be planned with ELLs in mind.
  • 5 steps used by Hickman et al.:
      • Preview story and 3 new words. Give Spanish equiivalents.
      • Read the book aloud. Focus on literal and inferential comprehension.
      • Reread, focusing on the 3 words.
      • Extend comprehension, focusing on deeper understanding of words.
      • Summarize the book.

– Hickman, Pollard-Durodola, & Vaughn, 2004

slide115

Multicultural Books

  • These are likely to require less background building.
  • They build confidence and they value the ELLs’ home culture.
  • Such books make good read-alouds!

– Drucker, 2003

slide116

Selected Internet Resources

Internet TESL Journal

http://iteslj.org/

its-online

http://www.its-online.com/

English-to-Go

http://www.english-to-go.com/

Online Translator

http://www.worldlingo.com/en/products_services/worldlingo_translator.html

slide117

More Internet Resources

Barahona Center

http://www.csusm.edu/csb/

Georgia ESOL Program

http://public.doe.k12.ga.us/ci_iap_esol.aspx

slide118

Office of English Language Acquisition

(OELA)

http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oela/index.html?src=oc

slide119

National Clearinghouse for English

Language Acquisition (NCELA)

http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/

slide120

Forming an

Action Plan

slide121

What can we do at the district, school, and classroom levels to meet the needs of ELLs?

LEA

Schools

Teachers

slide122

At the District Level

  • Start (or improve) your record keeping system
  • Stay updated on programs
    • http://public.doe.k12.ga.us/ci_iap_esol.aspx
  • Coordinate PD across schools that serve ELLs
  • Lead efforts to attract bilingual teachers
  • Explore transitional bilingual programs
  • Establish active links with the Latino community
  • Recommend that parents turn on captioning
slide123

At the School Level

  • Generally, foster cultural awareness
  • Specifically, provide PD in culturally responsive teaching
  • Acquire bilingual and multicultural books
  • Hire bilingual teachers and paraprofessionals
  • Host community-building activities for Latino parents
  • Form teacher study groups
  • Locate and disseminate professional resources
slide124

At the Classroom Level

  • Seek the Georgia ESOL Endorsement
    • http://www.glc.k12.ga.us/pandp/esol/certif.htm
  • Learn to apply scientifically-based instructional approaches
  • Form needs-based groups with English proficiency in mind
  • Learn conversational Spanish
slide125

Who me? Learn Spanish?

Why not? It will not only help you meet the needs of ELLs, but it will deepen your understanding of English. As the greatest writer in German once put it . . .

slide126

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)

Those who know nothing of foreign languages know nothing of their own.

slide127

Suggested Readings

Brock, C.H., & Raphael, T.E. (2005). Windows to language, literacy, and culture:

Insights from an English-language learner. Newark, DE: IRA.

Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners.

The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.

Echevarria, J., & Graves, A. (2003). Sheltered content instruction: Teaching

English-language learners with diverse abilities (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn

& Bacon.

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D.J. (2004). Making content comprehensible for

English learners: The SIOP model (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Helman, L.A. (2004). Building on the sound system of Spanish: Insights from the alphabetic spellings of English-language learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 452-460.

Helman, L.A. (2005). Using assessment results to improve teaching for English-

language learners. The Reading Teacher, 58, 668-677.

Hickman, P., Pollard-Durodola, S., & Vaughn, S. (2004). Storybook reading: Improving vocabulary and comprehension for English-language learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 720-730.

slide128

Suggested Readings

Shanahan, T., & August, D. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in English- language learners. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Tabors, P.O., & Snow, C.E. (2002). Young bilingual children and early literacy

development. In S.B. Neuman & D.K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of

early literacy research (Vol. 1, pp. 159-178). New York: Guilford.