Assessment

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# Assessment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Assessment. National Research Council (2001). “students need to be efficient and accurate in performing basic computation with whole numbers” (p. 121)

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Presentation Transcript

### Assessment

National Research Council (2001)
• “students need to be efficient and accurate in performing basic computation with whole numbers” (p. 121)
• students must learn to “use an algorithm for computation with multi-digit numbers because it is an important part of developing mathematical proficiency” (p.7)
Assess these skills?
• Curriculum-Based Measurement
• Developed more than 25 years ago (Stan Deno)
• Reliable & valid way of assessing student progress in the basic skill areas
• CBM-Probes ~ narrow-band tests ~ are simple to administer and score & sensitive to improvement & time efficient
• Science-based research (Marston, 1989; Thurber & Shinn, 2002) ~ having students write answers to grade-level computational problems for 2-4 min. is a reliable and valid outcome measure for typically achieving and those with severe problems (all fact probes are 2 minutes)
Probes
• Correct digits
• Standardized directions
• “We’re going to take a 2 (or 4) -minute math test. I want you to write your answers to these math problems. Some are ___ and some are _____. Look at each one carefully before you write the answer. When I say begin, write your answer to the first problem (point) and work across the page (show). Then go to the next row. Keep doing this until I say stop. Try to work each problem. If you really don’t know how to do it, put an x through it and go to the next problem.” At the end of 2 minutes say, “Stop.”
• Testing ~ not teaching
• No skipping (“try to work each problem”)
Scoring Guidelines
• Correct digits
• Each correct digit is underlined and counted
• Incomplete problem ~ count correct digits
• Xed out ~ count correct digits
• Poor legibility & difficult to determine the number ~ count incorrect
• Reversed but obvious ~ (3) count correct
Probes?
• AIMSweb ~ www.aimsweb.com
• Intervention Central ~ www.interventioncentral.org
• GRAPH RESULTS!!!
• Computer
• By hand
State Measures
• http://community.learnnc.org/dpi/math/archives/instructional_resources/index.php

### Error Analysis

Diagnosing Errors
• Step 1: Analyze errors and make a hypothesis about the cause of the errors
• Step 2: Interview student to determine cause of the error (if not obvious)
• Step 3: Reteach
• Step 4: Test
Error Types
• Fact Error
• Component Skill Error
• Strategy Error
Fact Error
• Basic facts ~ 100 addition and multiplication facts formed by adding or multiplying any 2 single-digit numbers and their subtraction and division counterparts
• Student follows the correct sequence of steps for solving the problem but misses the problem because of a basic fact error
Fact Error Remediation
• Does the student miss a certain fact consistently?
• If so, the remediation must involve practice on that fact
• Does the student miss a fact inconsistently?
• Increase incentives for accurate work (so students do not rush through work and make careless errors)
Component Skill Error
• Previously taught skills that are integrated as steps in a problem-solving strategy
• Lower grade ~ counting or symbol identification error
• Later grades ~ wider range
Component Skill Error Remediation
• Is the error occurring consistently?
• If no, don’t remedy
• If yes, reteach the particular component skill for AT LEAST 2 consecutive days. Once the student can perform that skill with mastery, reintroduce examples of the problem type that was originally missed.
Strategy Error
• Student does not know the sequence of steps to solve the problem type
Strategy Error Remediation
• Reteach the strategy ~
• Using a highly structured presentation