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Module 1: Introduction Topic 3: Interconnect Technology. OGI EE564 Howard Heck . Where Are We?. Introduction Overview Trends & Challenges Interconnect Technology Transmission Line Basics Analysis Tools Metrics & Methodology Advanced Transmission Lines Multi-Gb/s Signaling

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Module 1 introduction topic 3 interconnect technology l.jpg

Module 1: IntroductionTopic 3: Interconnect Technology

OGI EE564

Howard Heck

Section 1.3


Where are we l.jpg
Where Are We?

  • Introduction

    • Overview

    • Trends & Challenges

    • Interconnect Technology

  • Transmission Line Basics

  • Analysis Tools

  • Metrics & Methodology

  • Advanced Transmission Lines

  • Multi-Gb/s Signaling

  • Special Topics

Section 1.3


Contents l.jpg
Contents

  • Component Packaging

  • Passive Components

  • Connectors

  • Printed Circuit Boards

Section 1.3


Overview l.jpg
Overview

(Chip + Pkg)

PCB

(add-in card)

Connector

Components

PCB

(Motherboard)

Source: Intel Corp.

Section 1.3


Overview soa desktop motherboard l.jpg
Overview – SOA Desktop Motherboard

Graphics Connector

Chipset

Microprocessor

Memory Slots

Section 1.3


Overview soa desktop motherboard6 l.jpg
Overview – SOA Desktop Motherboard

Memory Connectors

Chipset

Graphics Connector

Microprocessor

X48 chipset motherboard

Section 1.3


Component packaging l.jpg
Component Packaging

  • Packages house the silicon chips. They provide:

    • Mechanical support

    • Heat removal

    • Environmental protection

    • Electrical signal & power connections (chip to PCB).

Heat Spreader

Silicon

Package

PCB

Soldered Connections

Section 1.3


Component packaging8 l.jpg
Component Packaging

Section 1.3


Component packaging9 l.jpg
Component Packaging

Source: Intel Corp.

Section 1.3


Example flip chip pinned grid array l.jpg
Example: Flip Chip Pinned Grid Array

Top

Bottom

Cross-section

Section 1.3


Medium speed package electrical models l.jpg
Medium Speed Package Electrical Models

Bond Wire

Trace

Pin / Land

L

R

L

R

bw

bw

pin

pin

Die

Board

t

Z

,

0

d

R

, L

, C

tb

tb

tb

Tie Bar

Source: Packaging Databook, Intel Corp

Today’s speeds demand that we use fully coupled 3D package models.

Section 1.3


Passive components l.jpg
Passive Components

Resistors

  • Uses: termination for interconnect, pull up/down for static features

  • Variability: 5%, 2%, 1%

  • Chip resistors – 1 resistor per component

  • R-Packs – up to 4 resistors per small outline component

  • Resistor networks – more resistors per component

  • Lead inductance and package crosstalk can be important effects for high frequency applications.

    Capacitors

  • Variability: 20%, 10%

  • Chip capacitors – used for high frequency (local) decoupling of power suppliers

  • Tantalum capacitors – used for bulk decoupling

  • At high frequencies, resistance and inductance of the packages must be included in the models.

Section 1.3


Sockets connectors l.jpg
Sockets & Connectors

  • Sockets connect packages to PCBs.

  • Connectors connect PCBs to PCBs.

  • Connection is mechanical between two metal surfaces.

DIMM connector

LGA775 Socket

PCI® Express

Section 1.3


Socket connector electrical models l.jpg
Socket/Connector Electrical Models

t

R

Z

,

con

0con

dcon

  • These are simple models. Coupled models are frequently used for high performance applications.

Today’s speeds demand that we use fully coupled 3D connector models.

Section 1.3


Printed circuit boards l.jpg
Printed Circuit Boards

  • Function: provide electrical signal connections between components & deliver power to the components.

  • Material Set:

  • Construction:

    • Typically 4 to 6 layers (always an even number).

    • 4 layer board: 2 signal, 2 power ($0.09/in2)

    • 6 layer board: 4 signal, 2 power ($0.18-$0.24/in2)

    • Higher layer counts are available at higher cost.

Section 1.3


Pcb construction l.jpg
PCB Construction

Signal Trace

Surface Mount Pad

Via Land

Power Plane

Laminate (Dielectric)

Solder Mask

Via Barrel

Solder Mask

Signal Trace

Laminate (Resin)

Power Plane

Laminate (Glass)

Section 1.3


Pcb signal layer l.jpg
PCB Signal Layer

f

0.024"

D

2

f

0.012"

D

1

0.005"

W

0.006"

S

2

G

0.050"

0.005"

S

1

Section 1.3


Pcb vias l.jpg
PCB Vias

  • Vias make layer-layer connections by drilling holes and filling them with conductor material (copper).

  • They are used in chips, package, and boards.

Heat Spreader

Silicon

Package

PCB

Soldered Connections

Section 1.3


Pcb design goals l.jpg
PCB Design Goals

  • Function: All signals connected

  • Performance: Maximum operating frequency

  • Cost

    • Minimized technology requirements

      • Layer count

      • Board size

      • Relaxed width & spacing

      • Relaxed via size

    • Design for manufacturability

      • Component selection

      • Component placement

      • Trade routing

Section 1.3


Summary l.jpg
Summary

  • Package electrical parameters are typically modeled with lumped circuit elements and transmission lines.

  • We will examine the effects of lumped elements later, and will account for them in our design project. We will also consider when transmission line models are required.

  • For high volume PCs, system designers use pervasive, low cost PCB solutions:

    • FR-4 material set

    • 4 layer boards

    • 5/5 or 6/6 mil trace/space wiring

    • 4 boards per panel for motherboards

  • PCBs are used for motherboards, add-in cards, and CPU packages.

  • PCBs provide interconnect for high speed buses operating as high as 400 MHz/800 MT/s and beyond.

Section 1.3


References l.jpg
References

  • Intel Packaging Databook, Intel Corporation, 2002, http://developer.intel.com/design/packtech/packbook.htm.

  • Component Types Used for SMT, IBM Microelectronics Division, January 1994.

  • Surface Mount Design and Land Pattern Standard, IPC-SM-782, IPC, Revision A – August 1993.

  • R.R. Tummala, E.J. Rymaszewski (ed.),Microelectronics Packaging Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1989.

Section 1.3


Appendix more packages l.jpg
Appendix: More Packages

Celeron® Processor Package

Celeron® Processor Cartridge

Pentium® Processor w/ MMX™ Package

850 Chipset Package

Section 1.3


Appendix more connectors l.jpg
Appendix: More Connectors

PCI

ISA

SLOT1

Memory DIMM

AGP

Section 1.3


Appendix cpu sockets l.jpg
Appendix: CPU Sockets

PGA370

Section 1.3