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Securing Careless Security Flaws: A Focused Analysis of the International Capture the Flag Virtual Machines PowerPoint Presentation
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Securing Careless Security Flaws: A Focused Analysis of the International Capture the Flag Virtual Machines. Nadine Sundquist CS591-F2008 University of Colorado, Colorado Springs Dr. C. Edward Chow. Roadmap. What kinds of services are usually on a web server? How do I secure my database?

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Securing Careless Security Flaws:A Focused Analysis of the International Capture the Flag Virtual Machines

Nadine Sundquist

CS591-F2008

University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

Dr. C. Edward Chow

roadmap
Roadmap
  • What kinds of services are usually on a web server?
  • How do I secure my database?
  • How do I secure SSH?
  • How do I secure Apache Tomcat?
  • How do I limit user privileges?
  • How do I find configuration files?
what kinds of services are usually on a web server
What kinds of services are usually on a web server?
  • Just a few languages and services are:
    • Java, C, PHP, Python, and Ruby
  • Other configurations that need protection:
    • SSH, the MySQL database, and Apache Tomcat
how do i secure my database locking down mysql users
How do I secure my database?(Locking down MySQL Users)
  • Set the root password (no password should be blank in the mysql->user table).
  • Change obvious passwords (same username and password).
  • In general, allow users access to the database only from the local machine.
how do i secure my database mysql commands
How do I secure my database?MySQL Commands

UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD(newpassword') WHERE User='user';

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

**************************************************

DROP USER ‘user’;

how do i secure my database
How do I secure my database?
  • Limit privileges for application users using GRANT.
    • Be able to select and insert for only the database that the user was created.
    • Application users do not need administrative privileges.
  • Host should not be ‘%’. This means access from everywhere.
how do i secure my database7
How do I secure my database?
  • Drop the test database.
  • DROP DATABASE [database_name];
how do i secure my database in linux my cnf
How do I secure my database?In Linux (my.cnf)
  • All MySQL database configuration is in my.cnf.
  • Protect the file with a chmod where the mysql user can see the file.
  • In the user table, the host field should not be ‘%’ and/or my.cnf should have skip-networking under [mysql].
  • Turn off mysqldump in /etc/mysql/my.cnf.
  • bind-address in my.cnf should also be set to 127.0.0.1.
how do i secure ssh
How do I secure SSH?
  • If possible, turn off SSH (though not realistic).
  • Set PermitRootLogin to no
  • Set up a list of users that are allowed to SSH into the server in /etc/ssh/sshd_config.
    • PermitRootLogin no
    • AllowUsers user1 user2@localhost user3@localhost user4@localhost
    • PermitEmptyPasswords no
  • Change the SSH port to a higher port (if possible).
how do i secure apache tomcat
How do I secure Apache Tomcat?
  • If using the Tomcat manager web interface, make sure the default users in tomcat-users.xml are not used.
  • Create a Tomcat user. Do not run Tomcat as root in Linux.
  • Remove extraneous example applications from webapps.
  • If not being used, remove the Tomcat manager application from server/webapps.
how do i secure apache tomcat11
How do I secure Apache Tomcat?
  • Return an empty error page instead of a stack trace from Tomcat.
    • webapps/[app_name]/WEB-INF/web-xml inside the web-app tag
  • Change the shutdown port and shutdown command in conf/server.xml.
  • Protect server.xml.
how do i limit user privileges
How do I limit user privileges?
  • Find users with privileges in /etc/passwd.
  • Limit to the home directory and what application users are allowed to execute.
  • Limit directory traversal.
  • Set directory permissions (chmod).
  • Scan startup scripts for flaws in /etc/init.d for each of the services.
how do i find configuration files
How do I find configuration files?
  • This command will help you find a file if you know the file name:
    • find . | grep [name of file]
  • This command will help you find a file if you know a few key phrases in the file:
    • find . | xargs grep [phrase in file]
    • e.g. find . | xargs grep DATABASE_ENGINE for Django settings file.
conclusions and further work
Conclusions and Further Work
  • Most of the problems in security seem to come from how tools and frameworks are configured.
  • In the future, I would like to look into:
    • The proper configurations of other frameworks such as Django.
    • How to configure and properly use lighttpd.
references
References
  • Forum: Permitting specific users to SSH. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from

http://ph.ubuntuforums.com/showthread.php?t=875164.

  • Georgia Tech – Securing MySQL. Retrieved November 11, 2008, from

http://www.lugatgt.org/articles/sec_mysql/#toc_4.

  • MySQL 5.0 Reference Guide. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/.

  • Secure SSH: Debian. Retrieved from October 28, 2008, from

http://www.debian-administration.org/articles/455.

  • Securing Apache: Step-by-Step. Retrieved November 27, 2008 from

http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1694.

  • Securing MySQL: Step-by-Step. Retrieved November 11, 2008, from

http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1726.

  • Securing Tomcat. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from

http://www.owasp.org/index.php/Securing_tomcat.