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Personality Theory & Assessment Chapter 14 Part I. William G. Huitt. Personality Theories http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/perscontents.html. Last revised: May 2005. Humanistic Personality Theories. Abraham Maslow Emphasized self-actualization and transcendence

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Personality Theory & AssessmentChapter 14Part I

William G. Huitt

Personality Theories

http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/perscontents.html

Last revised: May 2005

humanistic personality theories
Humanistic Personality Theories
  • Abraham Maslow
    • Emphasized self-actualization and transcendence
    • Found self-actualizers to be accurate in perceiving reality, able to judge honestly and to spot quickly the fake and the dishonest
  • Carl Rogers
    • Focus on self-worth, self-esteem
    • Unconditional positive regard is designed to reduce threat, eliminate conditions of worth, and bring the person back into tune with his or her true self
    • Major goal of psychotherapy is to enable people to open themselves up to experiences and begin to live according to their own values rather than according to the values of others in order to gain positive regard
humanistic personality theories1
Humanistic Personality Theories
  • Self-esteem
    • One source of variations in self-esteem arises from comparisons of actual to desired traits
    • Another source is achievement compared to expectations
    • Self-esteem is fairly stable from childhood through the late adult years with the exception of early adolescence
learning theories and personality
Learning Theories and Personality
  • Locus of control
    • A concept used to explain how people account for what happens in their lives
      • internal locus of control—people see themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences
      • external locus of control—people perceive what happens to be in the hands of fate, luck, or environment
learning theories and personality1
Learning Theories and Personality
  • Social-cognitive theory
    • Reciprocal determinism
      • Bandura’s concept that behavior, cognitive factors, and environment all influence and are influenced by each other
    • Self-efficacy
      • A person’s belief in his or her ability to perform competently in whatever is attempted
trait theories
Trait Theories
  • Early trait theories
    • Gordon Allport
      • Claimed that each person inherits a unique set of raw materials for given traits, which are then shaped by experiences
    • Raymond Cattell
      • Referred to observable qualities of personality as surface traits
      • Found certain clusters of surface traits that appeared together time after time
      • Believed these were evidence of deeper, more general, underlying personality factors, which he called source traits
      • Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, commonly called the 16 PF, yields a personality profile
trait theories1
Trait Theories
  • Factor models of personality
    • Five-factor Theory
      • Surgency, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect
    • Big Five
      • Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience (OCEAN).
trait theories2
Trait Theories
  • Factor models of personality
    • Costa and McCrae
      • Developed the NEO Personality Inventory and, more recently, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which are used to measure the Big Five dimensions of personality
      • The NEO and other measures of the Big Five are currently being used in a wide variety of personality research studies
nature nurture and personality
Nature, Nurture, and Personality
  • Twin and adoption studies
    • Most studies have found similarity between identical twins on several personality factors, regardless of whether they are raised together or apart
    • Correlations similar to those for intelligence
  • Neurotransmitters and personality
    • Researchers hypothesize that genes contribute to personality through their influence on the brain’s neurotransmitter production, transport, and reuptake systems
    • Researchers propose that people who are emotionally unstable possess a serotonin system that is unusually sensitive to dangers and threats
nature nurture and personality1
Nature, Nurture, and Personality
  • Personality and culture
    • Hofstede
      • Analyzed questionnaire responses measuring the work-related values of more than 100,000 IBM employees in 53 countries around the world
      • Factor analysis revealed four separate dimensions related to culture and personality
      • Rank-ordered the 53 countries on each of the four dimensions
nature nurture and personality2
Nature, Nurture, and Personality
  • Personality and culture
    • Power distance—the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (such as the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.
    • Uncertainty avoidance—a society’s tolerance for ambiguity.
    • Individualism/collectivism—signifies a culture’s emphasis either on individuals or on social relationships
    • Masculinity/femininity—the distribution of emotional roles between the sexes
nature nurture and personality3
Nature, Nurture, and Personality

Source: Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture Cross-Cultural Research,38(1): 52-88.

personality assessment
Personality Assessment
  • Projective tests
    • A personality test in which people respond to inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations, incomplete sentences, and the like, by projecting their own inner thoughts, feelings, fears, and conflicts onto the test materials
    • Based on the assumption that the test taker will transfer (“project”) unconscious conflicts and motives onto an ambiguous stimulus.
the rorschach inkblot test
The Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • Ambiguous stimuli
  • Person is asked to report what they see

Sample Rorschach Card

thematic apperception test
Thematic Apperception Test
  • Person is asked to tell a story about the “hero” in the picture
  • Based on Murray’s personality theory
    • People are distinguished by the needs that motivate their behavior
personality assessment1
Personality Assessment
  • Observation, interviews, and rating scales
    • Using an observational technique known as behavioral assessment, psychologists can count and record the frequency of particular behaviors
    • Useful because they provide a standardized format, including a list of traits or behaviors to evaluate
personality assessment2
Personality Assessment
  • Personality inventories
    • A paper-and-pencil test with questions about a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, which can be scored according to a standard procedure
    • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
      • An inventory for classifying personality types based on Jung’s theory of personality
personality assessment3
Personality Assessment
  • Personality inventories
    • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
      • The most extensively researched and widely used personality test
      • Used to screen and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders
      • Originally published in 1943
      • MMPI-2 was published in 1989
      • Does not reveal differences among normal personalities very well
personality assessment4
Personality Assessment
  • Personality inventories
    • NEO PI-R™ (240 items)
      • considered by many psychologists to be the best inventory for measuring traits within the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality
    • International Personality Item Pool (IPIP)