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Drought - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Drought

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  1. Drought

  2. What is Drought • Drought is a normal, recurrent feature of climate • Originates from precipitation deficiency over extended period of time, usually a season or more • Considered relative to some long-term average • Compare current situation to historical average, often a 30-year period of record. • Threshold (e.g., 75% of average precipitation over a specified time period) usually established somewhat arbitrarily

  3. Droughts are major natural disasters • Cause much loss of lives and can destroy economies

  4. Droughts cost money • Impact government’s ability to function and provide services

  5. Graphs show developing countries suffer most

  6. Note projected drought areas • Note areas that your group is responsible for.

  7. Projected Temp & Precip Trends in Africa • Temperature projected to increase especially at about 20-30 N&S latitude • Precipitation decrease in these areas IPCC

  8. Asia

  9. South America

  10. Southern Africa

  11. As of 2002, poor harvests • 14 million people in need of food • Caused by droughts and flood • Civil strife, HIV/Aids problems • Hard for countries to cope • Climate change will increase drought/floods

  12. Low rainfall in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia • Crop failure up to 90% • Maize prices up 400% • More than 30% of people 15-49 infected w/HIV/AIDS • Civil war in Angola • Land conflicts in Zimbabwe • International issues, economic policies also impact food production • IMF/WTO/World Bank forced policies on countries • E.g. Malawi warned it was spending too much on food reserves

  13. Climate Change Impacts • Rainfall more episodic • Lead to more droughts • 1/3 of national income in Africa from agriculture • 70% of population are farmers • 40% of all exports = agricultural products • In sub-Saharan Africa, poor spend up to 70% of income on food • up to 90% agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, is rain-fed, accounts for 70% of regional employment and 35% of gross national product. • Climate change will worsen food supplies • Temperatures may rise up to .5oC per decade • Central southern Africa will feel greatest rise • Droughts will increase

  14. Mitigation & Adaptation • Mitigation: actions that tackle the causes of climate • E.g.. reducing greenhouse gas emissions. • Adaptation: actions that minimize the consequences • Both are linked • How much adaptation depends on greenhouse gas emissions

  15. Adaptation—A case study • NERICA—New type of rice • Cross of African/Asian rice • Early maturing, drought tolerant, pest resistant, thrives in saline soil • Planted in Guinea, Uganda • Reduced reliance on importing rice when droughts hit

  16. Yemen • Agriculture is important resource • Accounts for 58% of employment • 96% of children in rural areas work in agriculture • 60% of women in agriculture • Depends on resources sensitive to climate change • Wheat and potato important • Wheat not too sensitive to climate change • Climate varies from hyper-arid to sub-humid

  17. Yemen Water • Scarce • Annual decline in aquifers of 1-8 m • Water pumped is 138% of annual renewable level • Water reservoirs will dry up in 50 years • Limited water is main problem for crop production

  18. Yemen Adaptation • Awareness of crop sensitivity to climate change • Improved irrigation techniques • Improved water storages