Crucible: _______________ Several Characters in this story face a severe test (test of ones beliefs and values.) Journal Prompt: Write about a severe test you have faced in your life.
Puritanism • Believed in a strong connection between church and state (theocracy) • Believed in a Covenant with God and with each other to follow moral codes in pursuit of eternal life • Believed in Predestination (only the elect would be saved) • Believed God and Satan were active presences in the natural word
In church, the minister would deliver an emotional sermon that could last for two, three, even four hours at a time without restroom breaks or intermissions. The Puritans listened intently to the terrible warnings of sin and punishment. • Church Deacons kept strict order in the church. Using a "staff," deacons would poke anyone misbehaving in church. • Churches were unheated and for many months of the year and in the winter were unbearably cold. Women carried small foot-stoves from home full of hot coals which were used to warm their feet during the church service. The Puritans--Lifestyle
Puritanism … • Believed Native Americans were heathens and the woods and forests full of demons • Believed in mandatory attendance at church • Believed that people were expected to work hard and repress emotions and opinions • The church dictated that dark, somber dress was appropriate
Puritanism … • Read natural signs to see God’s will or Satan’s tricks (when a neighbor’s crop failed or a child became sick, saw it as God’s will and did not help) • Believed Satan selected the “weakest”—women, children and the insane to carry out his work. • Believed those who followed Satan were considered witches • Punished witchcraft by death
Witch Trials in Europe As early as ______, witch hunts were happening all over Europe. Many ___________ were hanged, drowned or burned at the stake. Women were viewed as “__________” as they were formed from a man’s rib whereas men were the privileged sex (Christ--a male) Popular view of women was source of witch hunt hysteria…seen as inherently evil and sexual—thus targets for the _______.
Salem Witch Trials Possibly_________________________________________ in colonial American history. Fear of__________and _______________ was common in New England, as it had been in Europe. Over_______alleged witches hadbeen tried and hanged in New England during the 1600s. In early 1692, the witch hunt_________ began in Salem.
Salem Witch Trials … From early spring to September 1692, over 150 “witches” were taken into custody ____ men and women refused to confess and were hanged on Gallows Hill One man was __________ to death under___________ Four died in_______
Ways to Determine a Witch _______________________ ________________________: It was believed that water rejected servants of the devil and that if a suspected person floated and refused to sink when placed in water it was proof of guilt. Torture
Spectral Evidence Evidence only the ___________________ can see. This type of evidence was very popular in the Salem Witch Trials because the girls would “____________” their accuser flying over barns or flying out windows. But it was ONLY the person that was accusing someone of witchcraft could see them do these things.
The Crucible: by Arthur Miller Written in 1953. Story is based on _____________.
Arthur Mille wrote the play The Crucible. • The play is a fictional recreation of the Salem witch trials, their origins, a psychological investigation of the act of persecution, and McCarthyism. The Crucible
Arthur Miller • Born 1915-wrote many plays and stories • 1947- “All My Sons” • 1949- “Death of a Salesman” (Won a Pullitzer Prize) • _____- “The Crucible” • 1955 – “A View from the Bridge • Married ________________________-his second wife • 1961: Wrote and produced the movie “The Misfits” for Marilyn.
Joseph McCarthy Senator in the 1950’s Claimed State Dept. had ________________(FDR, Truman) Attracted a very large following Caused for the formation of the “_____________ _____________________ ____________” to investigate people suspected of Communism. Believed ________________ industry had many communists
The Hollywood _________ The Salem Witch Trials really did happen, but Arthur Miller used a more recent example from American history as the basis for The Crucible: _____________________. In the 1950’s many famous people were accused of being Communists and were called to testify: Lucille Ball ("I Love Lucy"), Ronald Reagan (though he became a "friendly witness" and named names of those he reportedly saw at Communist meetings), Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, and of course, Arthur Miller.
McCarthy ______________: is the belief that the person who is productive is most important (everyone works for government and paid equally). Because Arthur Miller often focused on the concern for the fate of the __________ ______in his works, he was linked to communism. Many people were subpoenaed and questioned on live television. Because of this publicity, even if an individual was found innocent, _________________ __________________________ Arthur Miller wrote “_____ ______________” as retaliation for his playwright friends who were being accused of communism.
“McCarthyism” Joseph McCarthy and his highly publicized attacks, usually based on ridiculous charges, was a way to _____________ someone What do you think the connection is between the McCarthy Trials and the Salem Witch Trials?
Setting of The Crucible What does Realm of the Devil mean? • ____________, __________________ • 1692. • A small town surrounded by forests. • The forests were considered the “__________________” in Colonial America.
The Motive for Accusing Others 1. ___________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________
Literary Terms Antecedent Action: Action that takes place ____________ _____________________. Motives of Characters: ____________ for a character’s actions Tragic Hero: bring about his own ________________ Hamartia: Greek word for “____________ _____________” Protagonist: _______________ of the story Antagonist: ________________________whom/which the hero struggles