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SEKILAS FILSAFAT MULLA SADRA. Dr Uhar Suharsaputra. DINAMIKA HATI (KEIMANAN) DAN AKAL (PEMIKIRAN). Sadruddin Syrazi / Sadr Al Mutaallihiin MULLA SADRA HIKMAH AL MUTA’ALIYAH Al- Hikma al- muta‘aliya fi -l- asfar al-‘ aqliyya al- arba‘a

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  3. SadruddinSyrazi / Sadr Al Mutaallihiin MULLA SADRA HIKMAH AL MUTA’ALIYAH Al-Hikma al-muta‘aliyafi-l-asfar al-‘aqliyya al-arba‘a [The Transcendent Philosophy of the Four Journeys of the Intellect], a philosophical encyclopedia and a collection of important issues discussed in Islamic philosophy, enriched by the ideas of preceding philosophers, from Pythagoras to those living at the same time with MullaSadra, and containing the related responses on the basis of new and strong arguments. In four large volumes; also published several times in nine smaller volumes. He composed this book gradually, starting in about 1015 A.H. (1605 A.D.); its completion took almost 25 years, until some years after 1040 A.H. (1630 A.D.)


  5. DEFINISI FILSAFAT • philosophy is the perfecting of the human soul, through the cognition of the true natures of existents, as they truly are, through judgements concerning them that are ascertained through apodeixis, and not understood through conjecture, or adherence to prior authority, insofar as is humanly possible. Through philosophy, man acquires a resemblance to the Creator and ascribes a rational order to the cosmos. • The perfection of man lies in the perception of universal realities (al-haqa’iq al-kulliyya) and disposition towards divine cognition, and transcendence above material sensibilia, and self-purification from the restraints of carnal and passionate appetites. This can only be acquired through guidance, teaching, discipline, and formation of righteous character. (MullaSadra 2001, Al-Hikma al-muta‘aliyafi-l-asfar al-‘aqliyya al-arba‘a)

  6. Philosophy is a process of perfecting the soul though knowledge. Knowledge has a transformative effect of curing an ignorant (sick) soul/mind, a theme common in Late Antiquity. • The goal of philosophy is explicitly metaphysical: to acquire knowledge of things that exist and to understand their essences in themselves, beyond any phenomenal deception. What is significant is that MullaSadra proposes a thoroughly rational, or intellectual approach to understanding reality that assumes not only that reality is a given, existing independently of our minds, but also that human minds are capable through self-perfection to understand reality. • Knowledge is a process that develops through making judgements. The term judgment is a technical concept in Islamic epistemologies to describe the analysis of a proposition in which one ascertains whether it holds true and whether it describes something that exists. Judgements are therefore closely linked to the discernment of existence. • Knowledge develops and is corroborated through the Aristotelian science of demonstration (apodeixis). • Philosophy requires analysis and demonstration. The rehearsal of ideas, adhering to past authority and conjecture (imperfect and rhetorical forms of argument) do not constitute philosophical reasoning. • Knowledge is not an unlimited process or act of being for MullaSadra but does have limits due to the human vehicle of knowing. • The perfect philosopher, as in Plato, strikes a resemblance to the creator/demiurge insofar as he knows the essences and forms of things that exist extra-mentally and is capable of ascribing a rational order to the universe and hence understands relationships of causality and connection between existents.

  7. METODE FILSAFAT • First, as we discussed above philosophy is a way of life, a lived mode of being and a process that involves spiritual exercises • Second, he integrates philosophical and spiritual reasoning • Third, in terms of method, one needs to integrate ratiocinative, propositional knowledge and a linear mode of reasoning with more intuitive and non-propositional modes of knowing, including in particular what is termed ‘immediate’ or ‘presential’ knowledge

  8. AL ASFAR AL ARBA’AH • Min Al Khalqila Al Haqq • Min Al Haqqila Al Haqq bi Al Haqq (Fi Al Haqqmaa Al Haqq) • Min Al Haqqila Al Khalq bi Al Haqq (Min Al Haqqila Al Khalqmaa Al Haqq) • Min Al Khalqila Al Khalq bi Al Haqq (Fi Al Halqmaa Al Haqq)

  9. ANALOGINYA…….. • Shari’a: Shari’a is Islamic law as revealed in the Qur’an and Sunna. The first step is following every aspect of the law perfectly. The purpose of this is to prove their love for God, by rigorous self-discipline and constant attention to their conduct. When one fully lives his or her life according to the Shari’a he or she is ready to progress to the second stage. This conformity to earthly rules is important because it recognizes that the spirit of a man or woman is affected by the actions of the body. In this way, bringing the body under the will of God also purifies the spirit and a pure spirit is essential for the second step. • TariqaTariqa in Arabic means “path” and it denotes a Shi'i/Sufi brotherhood or order. The orders are governed by Awaliya (pl. Wali), spiritual leaders that mentor the follower. Wali are identified by the signs of God’s grace that are evident, such as the ability to perform miracles. The followers are committed to the spiritual lifestyle and want to progress further in their spiritual education. With time the disciple is introduced to the awrad, a series of prayers particular to the spiritual order. These prayers must be studied before they are recited, because mistakes made in the prayer are sins. When the disciple has studied and recited the awrad for an undeterminable amount of time, gradually spiritual illuminations -that are veiled from most people- begin to reval themselves. This is the third stage, haqiqa. • HaqiqaHaqiqa is a difficult concept to translate. The book Islamic Philosophical Theology defines it as “what is real, genuine, authentic, what is true in and of itself by dint of metaphysical or cosmic status”. Haqiqa may be best defined as the knowledge that comes from communion with God, knowledge gained only after the tariqa is undertaken - one can see beyond the physical world because of his proximity to God and possession of haqiqa. Haqiqa is less a stage in itself and more the marker of a higher level of consciousness, which precedes the next and final stage, marifa. • MarifaMarifa has been defined as “knowledge”. Marifa is “gnosis”, knowledge obtained in God’s presence that has no relation to earthly knowledge and which can only be obtained by personal experience. Marifa is gained from direct illumination from God and thus is only available to those who have progressed through the stages of spirituality and have entered into God’s presence. (William C. Chittick .1992. Faith and Practice of Islam: Three Thirteenth Century Sufi Texts. • Albany: State University of New York.)

  10. POKOK-POKOK FILSAFAT MULLA SADRA Asholah Al Wujud • Existence precedes the essence and is thus principal since something has to exist first and then have an essence." It is notable that for MullaSadra this was a question that specifically applied to God and God's position in the universe, especially in the context of reconciling God's position in the Qur'an verses cosmological philosophies of Islam's Golden Era • Existence is a single, simple reality having neither genus nor differentia, nor a definition or a demonstration or a definiens. It only admits of degrees by perfection and deficiency (bi-l-kamalwa-l-naqs), by priority and posteriority (al-taqaddumwa-l-ta’akhkhur) and by independence and dependence (bi-l-ghinawa-l-haja). (MullaSadra 1964: 68-9) • MullaSadra held the view that Reality is Existence. He believed that an essence was by itself a general notion, and therefore and does not, in reality, exist.To paraphrase FazlurRahman on MullaSadra's Existential Cosmology: Existence is the one and only reality. Existence and reality are therefore identical. Existence is the all-comprehensive reality and there is nothing outside of it. Essences which are negative require some sort of reality and therefore exist. Existence therefore cannot be denied. Therefore existence cannot be negated. As Existence cannot be negated, it is self-evident that it Existence is God. God should not be searched for in the realm of existence but is the basis of all existence. It should be noted that Reality in Arabic is "Al-Haq", and is stated in the Qur'an as one of the Names of God.

  11. God • There is existence • Existence is a perfection above which no perfection may be conceived • God is perfection and perfection in existence • Existence is a singular and simple reality; there is no metaphysical pluralism • That singular reality is graded in intensity in a scale of perfection (that is, a denial of a pure monism). • That scale must have a limit point, a point of greatest intensity and of greatest existence. • Hence God exists (= existence).

  12. Soul • The Adamic soul has an existence preceding the body without this entailing metempsychosis or necessitating the pre-eternity of the individual soul, which is the well-known doctrine of Plato. This mode of pre-existence does not require the multiplicity of individuals of a single species or their differentiation without reference to matter or any disposition towards matter. Nor does it entail the soul's being divided after it had been one in the manner of continuous essences. Nor does it suppose the soul's inactivity before being united with bodies • The human soul has many stations and degrees from the beginning of its generation to the end of its goal and it has certain essential states and modes of existence. First, in its state of attachment to the body it is a corporeal substance; then it progresses gradually in intensity and develops through stages of its creation until it becomes self-subsistent and separates from this world to the next and returns to its Lord.

  13. harakat al-jawhariyyah • Another central concept of MullaSadra's philosophy is the theory of "substantialmotion" (Arabic:al-harakat al-jawhariyyah), which is "based on the premise that everything in the order of nature, including celestial spheres, undergoes substantial change and transformation as a result of the self-flow (fayd) and penetration of being (sarayan al-wujud) which gives every concrete individual entity its share of being. In contrast to Aristotle and Avicenna who had accepted change only in four categories, i.e., quantity (kamm), quality (kayf), position (wad’) and place (‘ayn), Sadra defines change as an all-pervasive reality running through the entire cosmos including the category of substance (jawhar).”

  14. Causation • Sadra argued that all contingent beings require a cause which puts their balance between existence and non-existence in favor of the former; nothing can come into existence without a cause. Since the world is therefore contingent upon this First Act, not only must God exist, but God must also be responsible for this First Act of creation. • Sadra also believed that a causal regress was impossible because the causal chain could only work in the matter that had a beginning, middle, and end: 1) a pure cause at the beginning 2) a pure effect at the end 3) a nexus of cause and effect • The Causal Nexus of MullaSadra was a form of Existential Ontology within a Cosmological Framework that Islam supported. For MullaSadra the Causal "End" is as pure as its corresponding "Beginning", which instructively places God at both the beginning and the end of the creative act. God's capacity to measure the intensity of Existential Reality by measuring Causal Dynamics' and their Relationship to their Origin, as opposed to knowing their effects, provided the Islamically-acceptable framework for God's Judgement of Reality without being tainted by its Particulars. This was an ingenious solution to a question that had haunted Islamic philosophy for almost one thousand years: How is God able to judge sin without knowing sin?

  15. Truth A true statement is a statement that is true to the concrete facts in existence. He held a metaphysical and not a formal idea of truth, claiming that the world consists of mind-independent objects that are always true and truth is not what is rationally acceptable within a certain theory of description. In MullaSadra's view one cannot have access to the reality of being: only linguistic analysis is available. This theory of Truth has two levels: the claim that a proposition is true if it corresponds to things in reality; and that a proposition can be true if it conforms with the actual thing itself.


  17. Literatur Affifi, A.E. 1989. FilsafatMistisIbnuArabi, terj. Tim, Gaya Media Pratama, Jakarta Al Ahwani, Ahmad Fuad, 1985. Filsafat Islam, terj. PustakaFirdaus, Jakarta Arabi, Ibnu. 1986. HakikatLafadz Allah, terj. HasanAbrori, PustakaProgresif Surabaya ------ 1988. Misykatul Anwar, terj. Ari Anggari, PustakaFirdaus, Jakarta ------, 1988. Sufi-sufi Andalusia, terj. Nasrullah, Mizan, Bandung Ghazali, Al, 1984. Misykatul Anwar, terj. Muhammad Baqir, Mizan, Bandung ------ 1984. The Alchemy of Happiness , terj. HaidarBagir, Mizan, Bandung Hoesen, OemarAmin, 1964. Filsafat Islam, BulanBintang, Jakarta Leaman, Oliver, 1999, A Brief Introduction to Islamic Phylosophy, Polity Press, Cambridge Muttahhari, Murthadha, 2003. FilsafatHikmah,terjtimMizan, Mizan Bandung Madjid, Nurcholis, 1984. KhazanahIntelektual Islam, BulanBintang, Jakarta Nasution, Harun. 1975. Filsafat Agama, BulanBintang, Jakarta -------, 1978. FilsafatdanMistisismedalam Islam, BulanBintang, Jakarta Kartanegara, Mulyadi. 2003. Epistemologi Islam,Mizan, Bandung Bakar, Osman.1998. HirarkiIlmu,terj. Purwanto, Mizan, Bandung Chittick , William C..1992. Faith and Practice of Islam: Three Thirteenth Century Sufi Texts. Albany: State University of New York.) Nasr, SyedHusein. 1997.Sadr al-Din Shirazi and his Transcendent Theosophy, Background, Life and Works, 2nd ed., Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, ------, 1986. TigaPemikir Islam, terj.A. Mujahid, Risalah, Bandung Rahman, Fazlur. 1975, The Philosophy of MullaSadra, Albany: State Univ of New York Press, Yazdi, MehdiHairi, 1994. IlmuHuduri, terjAhsinMukhammad, Mizan, Bandung Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

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