psychology 203 human development l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Psychology 203 Human Development PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Psychology 203 Human Development

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 40

Psychology 203 Human Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 265 Views
  • Uploaded on

Psychology 203 Human Development. Physical and Cognitive Development In Middle Adulthood Chapter 15. Middle Age A Cultural Construct. Middle adulthood was least studied part of life span “Middle age” came into use 1900 because of lengthening of life expectancy

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Psychology 203 Human Development' - anka


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
psychology 203 human development

Psychology 203 Human Development

Physical and Cognitive Development

In

Middle Adulthood

Chapter 15

Part taken from Human Development 9e

middle age a cultural construct
Middle AgeA Cultural Construct
  • Middle adulthood was least studied part of life span
  • “Middle age” came into use 1900 because of lengthening of life expectancy
  • Only present in industrial societies
  • No consensus on specific biological or social events that mark beginning or end

Part taken from Human Development 9e

middle age
Middle Age
  • Text book defines middle age in chronological terms (40-65 years)
  • Meaning of middle age varies with
    • Health
    • Gender
    • Ethnicity
    • Socioeconomic status
    • Cohort (group or followers)
    • Culture

Part taken from Human Development 9e

middle age physical development
Middle AgePhysical Development
  • “Use it or Lose it!” – research suggest that this is true
  • The more middle age people do, the more they can do
  • Physical changes are direct results of
    • Biological aging
    • Genetic makeup
    • Behavioral factors
    • Lifestyle factors

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development sensory and psychomotor functioning
Physical DevelopmentSensory and Psychomotor Functioning
  • Young adulthood – middle years
    • Sensory and motor changes are small and gradual
  • Age-related visual problems in five areas
    • Near vision (reading moving sings)
    • Sensitivity to light
    • Visual search (locating a sign)
    • Speed of processing visual information

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development sensory and psychomotor functioning6
Physical DevelopmentSensory and Psychomotor Functioning
  • Lens of eye
    • becomes progressively less flexible
    • Ability to shift focus diminishes
  • 40 and older need reading glasses (presby means “with age”)
    • Bifocals and Trifocals glasses
  • Hearing loss speeds up at age 50 and beyond

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development sensory and psychomotor functioning7
Physical DevelopmentSensory and Psychomotor Functioning
  • Sensitivity decline in midlife
    • Sensitivity to taste
    • Sensitivity to smell
  • Women tend to retain senses longer than men
  • Lose sensitivity to touch after 45
  • Strength and coordination decline
    • Loss of muscle fiber replaced by fat
    • Some muscle strength by age 45
    • 10-15% strength may be gone by 60
    • First weakening in back and leg muscles, then arm and shoulder (in age 60’s)
  • Manual dexterity generally becomes less efficient after 30’s

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development structural and systemic changes
Physical DevelopmentStructural and Systemic Changes
  • Changes in appearance
    • 50-60’s skin becomes less taut and smooth
    • Hair becomes thinner do to slowed replacement rate (collagen molecules become rigid and elastin fibers more brittle
    • Hair becomes greyer because of melanin decline
    • Perspire less because number of sweat glands decreases
    • Bone density decreases becoming more thin and brittle (women twice as rapidly then men)

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development structural and systemic changes9
Physical DevelopmentStructural and Systemic Changes
  • Heart begins to pump more slowly and irregularly in mid 50’s
  • By 65, may loose up to 40% of aerobic power
  • Vital capacity (lung volume of air) diminish at age 40 (40% decline by age 70)

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development sexuality and reproductive functioning11
Physical DevelopmentSexuality and Reproductive Functioning
  • Menopause
  • Physical
    • Vaginal
      • Dryness
      • Burning
      • Itching
      • Infections
    • Urinary
      • Infections
      • Dysfunction (tissue shrinkage)
    • Hot flashes

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development sexuality and reproductive functioning12
Physical DevelopmentSexuality and Reproductive Functioning
  • Psychological
    • Irritability
    • Nervousness
    • Anxiety
    • Depression
    • Memory loss
    • Not insanity

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development sexuality and reproductive functioning13
Physical DevelopmentSexuality and Reproductive Functioning
  • Changes in Male Sexuality
  • Physical
    • Sudden drop in hormone production
    • Weakness
    • Lower sexual drive
    • Erectile failure
    • Memory loss
    • Fatigue
    • Reduced muscle and bone mass
    • Reduced body hair
  • Climacteric
    • Depression
    • Anxiety
    • Irritability
    • Insomnia
  • No strong relationship between testosterone levels and sexual desire or performance

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development sexuality and reproductive functioning14
Physical DevelopmentSexuality and Reproductive Functioning
  • Sexual Activity
    • Diminish only slightly and gradually during 40 and 50’s
    • Many find sexual relationship better
      • Know their own sexual needs and desires better
  • Sexual dysfunction is persistent disturbance in sexual desire or sexual response
    • Lack of interest
    • Painful intercourse
    • Difficulty in arousal
    • Premature orgasm or ejaculation
    • Inability to reach climax
    • Anxiety about sexual performace

Part taken from Human Development 9e

physical development sexuality and reproductive functioning15
Physical DevelopmentSexuality and Reproductive Functioning
  • Appearance and Attractiveness
    • 1.6 million had injections of Botox
    • Wrinkles and graying hair imply
      • “Over the hill” for woman
      • “In the prime of life” for men
  • Self-esteem suffers when people devalue their physical being

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health health concerns
HealthHealth Concerns
  • Hypertension (chronically high blood pressure)
    • Most common chronic condition 45-64 men
    • Second most common (after arthritis) in women
    • Leads to
      • Heart attack
      • Stroke
      • Cognitive impairment

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health health concerns17
HealthHealth Concerns
  • Lifestyle diseases (table 15-2)
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Stroke
    • Diabetes
    • Breast cancer
    • Long cancer
    • Prostate cancer
    • Colorectal cancer
    • Melanoma (skin cancer)
    • Osteoporosis
    • Osteoarthritis

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health health concerns18
HealthHealth Concerns
  • Socioeconomic Status
    • Lower socioeconomic status lower life expectancy
      • Chronic disease
      • Lower well-being
      • Restricted access to health care

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health health concerns19
HealthHealth Concerns
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • Hypertension
    • 33% African American adults
    • 25% white Americans
    • 20% death African American
    • 10% death white Americans
  • Diabetes
    • 10% African American
      • Blindness
      • Kidney failure
      • Amputation of limbs
  • Largest single underlying factor of African American’s health problem is POVERTY

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health health concerns20
HealthHealth Concerns
  • Women’s Health After Menopause
    • Heart Disease – every ten years after menopause risk of heart disease X3
    • Bone Loss
      • Estrogen helps blood absorb calcium from food
    • Breast Cancer
      • One in eight American women
      • 95% survive for at least 5 years
      • 50% can expect at least 15 years
    • Hysterectomy
      • 33% by age 60
      • May be overused
    • Hormone Replacement Therapy
      • 38% of postmenopausal American women
      • Risk of breast cancer, heart attack, stroke and blood clots
      • Replace with
        • Losing weight
        • Stop smoking
        • Lower cholesterol

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health health concerns21
HealthHealth Concerns
  • Osteoporosis seems to have a genetic basis
  • * Recommended way to reduce the risk of osteoporosis is to eat foods high in calcium

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health emotional states personality and stress
HealthEmotional States, Personality and Stress
  • Negative moods
    • Suppress immune functioning
    • Increasing susceptibility to illness
  • Positive moods
    • Increase immune functioning
    • Decrease susceptibility to illness
  • The more stressful the changes the greater the likelihood of illness within one to two years
  • * Stressful events are less likely to lead to illness when the stressful event can be controlled by the person experiencing it

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health emotional states personality and stress23
HealthEmotional States, Personality and Stress

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health emotional states personality and stress24
HealthEmotional States, Personality and Stress
  • * Whether or not an event causes stress may depend on  the reaction it produces
  • Stress harms health indirectly
    • Sleep less
    • Smoke and drink more
    • Eat poorly
    • Pay little attention to their health
  • More realistic in coping with stress
    • Learned more effective strategies
    • Accept what cannot be changed

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health emotional states personality and stress25
HealthEmotional States, Personality and Stress
  • Men who use adaptive defenses for 20-47 years see themselves having good physical health at 65
  • Stress management workshops
    • Relaxation techniques
    • Meditation
    • Biofeedback

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health emotional states personality and stress26
HealthEmotional States, Personality and Stress
  • Job related stress
    • High job satisfactionand control reduce stress casualties
    • Social support helps coping with stress and a lack of social support correlates with heart disease
    • Employees with high levels of skills and abilities are more resistant to stress
    • Type A / Type B personalities
    • Hardiness, self‑efficacy, and locus of control
    • Self‑esteem, negative affectivity, type of occupation, and sex characteristics

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health emotional states personality and stress27
HealthEmotional States, Personality and Stress
  • Unemployment
    • Greatest work-related stressor
      • Headaches
      • Stomach trouble
      • High blood pressure
      • Physical and metal illness
        • Heart attack
        • Stroke
        • Anxiety
        • Depression
      • Marital and family problems

Part taken from Human Development 9e

health emotional states personality and stress28
HealthEmotional States, Personality and Stress
  • * When men who define their worth in terms of their ability to support their family lose their jobs they experience
    • loss of identity
    • loss of control of their lives
    • loss of a sense of purpose
    • decreased ability to structure their time  

Part taken from Human Development 9e

cognitive development
Cognitive Development
  • Horn and Cattell
    • Fluid intelligence (neurological status) Decline with age
      • Perceiving relations
      • Forming concepts
      • Drawing inferences
    • Crystallized intelligence (education and cultural experience) hold or improve with age
      • Vocabulary
      • General information
      • Responses to social situations
      • Social dilemmas

Part taken from Human Development 9e

cognitive development31
Cognitive Development
  • * Cognitive development in middle adulthood is usually related to acquiring specialized knowledge
  • Cognitive ability in expertise continue and are independent of general intelligence
  • Encapsulation “captures” fluid abilities (information processing) for expert problem solving
  • Thinking is more flexible and adaptable

Part taken from Human Development 9e

cognitive development integrative thought
Cognitive DevelopmentIntegrative Thought
  • Feature of postformal thought is integrative nature
    • Integrate logic with intuition and emotion
    • Integrate conflicting facts and ideas
    • Integrate new information with known information
    • Filter information through their life experiences and previous learning

Part taken from Human Development 9e

creativity
Creativity
  • Exceptional talents are less born than made – require systematic training and practice
  • Extraordinary creative achievements
    • Deep highly organized knowledge of the subject
    • Intrinsic motivation to work hard for the sake of the work
    • Strong emotional attachment to the work
  • Creativity develops over a lifetime in social context, not nurturing environments

Part taken from Human Development 9e

creativity34
Creativity
  • * Highly creative people characteristic
    • self-starters
    • strong sense of purpose and direction
    • can juggle several ideas or projects at a time
    • are not easily discouraged

Part taken from Human Development 9e

creativity and intelligence
Creativity and Intelligence
  • General intelligence has little relationship to creative performance
  • Sternberg three aspects of intelligence may play a role
    • Insightful – define a problem and see it in a new light
    • Analytic – evaluate an idea and decide whether its worth pursuing
    • Practical – selling an idea and getting accepted

Part taken from Human Development 9e

creativity and age
Creativity and Age
  • Creative people’s last decade of a creative career typically produces only abut half as much as during the late 30’s or early 40’s
  • Age curve varies depending on field
    • Poets, mathematicians and theoretical physicists late 20’s early 30’s
    • Research psychologists peak around 40
    • Novelist, historians and philosophers late 40’s or 50’s

Part taken from Human Development 9e

work and education
Work and Education
  • Age-differentiated – roles based on age
    • Traditional life structure in industrialized societies
    • Holdover from a time when life was shorter and social institutions less diverse
  • Age-integrated – roles open to adults of all ages

Part taken from Human Development 9e

occupational patterns
Occupational Patterns
  • Ginzberg two career paths
    • Stable
      • Stay with a single vocation
        • Workaholics – last ditch effort to reach financial security
        • * Mellowed – come to terms with their level of achievement
    • Shifting
      • Multiple occupational choices
        • Try to achieve a better match between what they can do
        • want and expect from work
        • what they are getting out of it

Part taken from Human Development 9e

work versus retirement
Work versus Retirement
  • 80% for 40-59 years work
  • 61% for 60-69 years work full time 36% part time
  • 50 year olds work for financial reasons
  • 60 year olds work for intrinsic value
    • Enjoyment of work
    • Remain productive
    • Feeling valued
    • Respected

Part taken from Human Development 9e

mature learners
Mature Learners
  • 45% of middle-aged people participated in continuing or adult education
  • Training to update knowledge and skills
  • New occupations
  • Many adults simply enjoy learning

Part taken from Human Development 9e