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Lecture 4 Conceptual System Design & Introduction to Functional Allocation ISE 222 Spring 2005 Notes & Course Materials www.engr.sjsu.edu/kcorker Kevin.Corker@sjsu.edu. Kevin Corker San Jose State University 2/10/05. Agenda. Review System ID Scope and Bound Process

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kevin corker san jose state university 2 10 05

Lecture 4 Conceptual System Design & Introduction to Functional Allocation ISE 222 Spring 2005Notes & Course Materials www.engr.sjsu.edu/kcorkerKevin.Corker@sjsu.edu

Kevin Corker

San Jose State University

2/10/05

agenda
Agenda
  • Review System ID Scope and Bound Process
  • Complete the IDEF and action based costing
  • Preliminary Design Review Process
  • Introduction to Human Factors
  • Review Homework (with individuals and teams)
identification of need
Identification of Need
  • Gap
  • New Techniques
  • New System Requirements added
  • System Requirements Change Priority
  • Political Views Shift
  • Involve the customer– unless the customer has changed as well
slide4

System Definition Matrix:National Identity Confirmation Process

Scope

Bound

Needs

Objt

Criteria

Params

Var

Constrnt

national identity confirmation process needs
National Identity Confirmation ProcessNeeds
  • Ability to determine the identity of individuals in this country
    • quickly
    • at any place or time
    • to assure accuracy of identity information
    • to assure privacy and security of individual’s identity
national identity confirmation process objectives
To institute a national identification process

Portable and reliable

To provide appropriate authorities with information:

Name

Address

Visa/citizenship status

Criminal Information

Health Information

Contact and NOK (next of kin) Information

Tracking???

Able to be carried on or in person

whgt,< 4 oz

Volume < 2 cubic centimeters

Able to be accessed by pedestrian, automotive, or desk based systems

Able to link to national information sources

Wireless access range

Access queue management

Bandwidth

National Identity Confirmation ProcessObjectives

Criteria

Parameters

to provide appropriate authorities with information objectives
To provide appropriate authorities with information:Objectives
  • Easy access
    • Time to access
    • Encumbrance fro access
    • Voluntary or not access process
    • Validation of data…
national identity confirmation process objectives1
To secure ID from tampering or duplication

To secure ID from un authorized access

To keep all information current

Sealed no remote access

Access limited

Update Rate compatible with National Standards

Update per week??

National Identity Confirmation ProcessObjectives

Criteria

alternatives
Alternatives
  • A1: Hand carried ID with federal specification and on board storage
  • A2: Bio-referenced ID for identity with link to data store for other information
  • A3: Implanted RF-ID with data on board and with link to data store for other information
slide10

Secure

All Environ access

Lightweight

Accessible for mods

slide11

Implanted

Hand Held

Bio-ID

Asynchronous & Constant Update

Full Cross Index

Wireless Data Base

1

Privacy

Public

1

Security

2

Accuracy

3

Convenience

Access Ease

1

Authorities

Info Density

11

2

Info currency

3

Priority

slide13

Action Reference Framework

  • To (do something) to (something) somehow
  • Action , object, modifier
    • Used to describe a process

Functional Decomposition is to develop a description of what the system must do – not necessarily tied to how the system must do it.

slide14

Action/Task

Action/Task

Action/Task

Action/Task

Action/Task

Action/Task

Functional Flow Block Diagram

Boolean Operator

slide15

Hierarchic Structure for Decomposition

  • Sub Functions operate on input/output consistent with the higher levels of the hierarchy
  • Models the flow of data or objects in a system
slide16

ICOM

Control

Activity

Inputs

Outputs

Mechanism

slide17

Method of Analysis

  • Shows roles of information and materials with respect to activity
  • Each ICOM represents an activity or business step that can be broken down
  • Inputs: information/material used to produce activity output
  • Controls: Constraints on an activity
  • Mechanisms: That perform processing or provide energy to the activity (people or machines as mechanisms)
  • Output: The product of the activity
slide18

Context Diagram

Control

Activity

Inputs

Outputs

A0 : Purpose : Viewpoint

Mechanism

slide19

Target OOB

Procedures

Procedures

orders

Sight & Designate

Target

Expected Result

Ordinance Inventory

Select & Prepare

Ordinance

Guidance Equip

Deliver

Ordinance

Access

Damage

Captain

Automation

Gunner

Gunner

Automation

Captain

slide20

Steps in Functional Decomposition

  • Develop Context Diagram of Full System
  • Decompose System to Sub-elements (ICOMS for all)
  • Define Business Rule/Model
    • AS-Is the descriptive scenario
    • To-Be the future business or process model
  • Cost Analysis
    • Analysis of activities,
    • Gather costs,
    • Trace costs to activities,
    • Establish output measures,
    • Analyze costs
slide24

Steps/Perspectives for System EngineeringAnalysis

  • System Analysis
    • Identification of the impacts and consequences of alternative approaches to system solution
    • Identification of the quality, market, reliability, cost, effectiveness, benefits, longevity, aesthetics… of alternative system solutions
  • Iterative Refinement of Alternatives
    • Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Identification
supportability
Supportability
  • Inherent Characteristics of system design & installation that enable efficient maintenance and support of the system
  • Prime Elements:
    • Design Reliability Quality and Maintenance
  • Maintenance Infrastructure
    • Maintenance
    • Training
    • Supply chain support
    • Equipment
    • Packaging
    • Faculties
    • Technical Data
preliminary design review due 2 17
Preliminary Design Review (due 2/17)
  • Identify design & alternatives (at least 2)
    • for functional capability
    • support reliability
    • allow for maintainability
    • Usability & safety
    • Support for service
slide28

Environment

Operator

Machine/System

Organization

Roles & Responsibilities

Training

Communication

Capabilities

Modulating Variables

Perception

Cognition

Response

Controls

Tasks

Allocation

Feedback

Time

Info

Temp

Noise

Illumination

Effectors

Performance Capabilities

Displays

Performance Affordances

Performance Requirements

Performance Limitations

Systems Engineering Approach to HCI

Features

Automation

slide29

Motor Behavior Theory for Guidance in Design and Selection of Input Devices

  • Purpose to match a physical output on the part of a user to a signal that is recognizable by a system.
      • Bandwidth: range of expression
      • Dynamics: speed of response
      • Dimensionality: physical and temporal relations that the input device can support
      • Affordance: appropriate and expected response: in use and in feedback
        • E.g. button click or highlight changes in isotonic devices
      • Discrete entry devices and Continuous entry devices
  • Physical limits:
      • Ergonomic consideration
      • Environmental impacts: vibration, clothing restrictions, noise and etc.
      • Physical Measurement, information theory and neuromotor accuracy
slide30

Human Performance Models

  • What are they?
  • Expressions of relationships that either describe (descriptive) or predict (normative) human behavior across a range of environments or contexts
  • Specifics:
  • Perceptual Models, Information Processing Models, Motor Behavior Models, Decision Models, Framework Models, Unified Models….
slide31

Working Memory

200 ms 1500

7-17 letters 5 letters

  • LTM
    • 70 ms X

Cognate

70 msec /cycle

Motor Response

70 msec

Percept: 100 msec

slide32

INFORMATION MEASUREMENT

  • Information : property of messages and data or other evidence that reduces one’s uncertainty about the true state of the world.
  • Let x represent a hypothesis about the state of the world
  • Let y represent the observation that has a relation to x
      • I(x:y) is the relation of the observation to the state of the world
  • I(x:y) should be a function of the prior probability of x before y is observed and the posterior probability of x after y was observed: F[ p(x), p(x|y)]

= log2 P(x|y)/p(x)

slide33

Information Qualification

Loss

Input

Output

Noise

slide34

Information Qualification

What Effect does redundancy have on total information transmission?

H

Loss

H(x)

H(y)

T(x,y)

Input

Output

Noise

C (bits/sec) = bandwidth log2 (signal/noise+1)

slide35

H(x) = Spi log2 pi

H(x) = Sp(xi)[log2(1/p(xi))]

For equi-probable events

For differently probable events

H(x)

H(x|y)

H(y|x)

H(y)

slide36

Hick’s Law

Reaction Time

RT = a + b H(x)

where H(x) = log2(n)

.8 sec

.6 sec

.4 sec

.2 sec

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Bits 1 2 2.58 3

slide37

Fitts LawMovement Time = a+b(Id) Id = log2 [2*amplitude/(tolerance)]

Movement

time

.8

.6

.4

.2

Id 1 2 3 4 5 6 7