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  1. Objectives Overview See Page 155 for Detailed Objectives Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  2. Objectives Overview See Page 155 for Detailed Objectives Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  3. The System Unit • The system unitis a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data Page 156 Figure 4-1 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  4. The System Unit • The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes: Page 157 Figure 4-2 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  5. The System Unit • The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit • A computer chip contains integrated circuits Page 158 Figure 4-3 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  6. Processor • The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer • Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Parallel processors speed processing time, divide problems into portions, and require special software Page 159 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  7. Processor Page 159 Figure 4-4 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  8. The CPU (or Processor) is comprised of 2 primary components: • The control unitis the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer • The arithmetic logic unit(ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations Pages 159 - 160 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  9. Processor • For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle Page 160 Figure 4-5 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  10. Processor Pages 160 - 161 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  11. Data Representation Page 162 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  12. Data Representation A computer circuit represents the 0 or the 1 electronically by the presence or absence of an electrical charge Eight bits grouped together as a unit are called a byte. A byte represents a single character in the computer Page 162 Figures 4-6 – 4-7 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  13. Data Representation • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data Page 162 Figure 4-8 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  14. Data Representation Page 163 Figure 4-9 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  15. Memory • Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data • Stores three basic categories of items: Page 163 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  16. Memory • Each location in memory has an address • Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), orterabytes (TB) Page 164 Figure 4-11 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  17. Memory • The system unit contains two types of memory: Page 164 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  18. Memory Page 165 Figure 4-12 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  19. Memory • Three basic types of RAM chips exist: Page 166 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  20. Memory • RAM chips usually reside on a memory moduleand are inserted into memory slots Page 166 Figure 4-13 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  21. Memory • The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use • Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data Pages 166 - 167 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  22. Memory Page 167 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  23. Memory • Flash memorycan be erased electronically and rewritten • CMOStechnology provides high speeds and consumes little power • CMOStechnology uses battery power to retain information even when the power to the computer is turned off. Pages 167 – 168 Figure 4-14 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  24. Memory • Access timeis the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory • Measured in nanoseconds Page 168 Figures 4-15 – 4-16 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  25. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards • An expansion slotis a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card • An adapter cardenhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals • Sound card andvideo card Page 169 Figure 4-17 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  26. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards • Removable flash memory includes: • Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/ExpressCard modules Pages 169 - 170 Figure 4-19 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  27. Ports and Connectors Pages 170 - 171 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  28. Ports and Connectors Page 170 Figure 4-20 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  29. Ports and Connectors • On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sides Pages 170 - 171 Figure 4-21 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  30. Ports and Connectors • A USB portcan connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector • You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hub • USB ports support “Plug and Play” Pages 171 - 172 Figure 4-22 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  31. Ports and Connectors • Other types of ports include: (*) Firewire ports are similar to USB, in that they can connect multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds. Pages 172 - 173 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  32. Ports and Connectors • A port replicator is an external device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device • A docking station is an external device that attaches to a mobile computer or device Page 173 Figure 4-23 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  33. Buses • A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other • Data bus • Address bus • A computer can have these basic types of buses: • System bus • Backside bus • Expansion bus Page 174 Figure 4-24 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  34. Bays • A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment • A drive baytypically holds disk drives Page 175 Figure 4-25 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  35. Power Supply Page 175 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  36. Putting It All Together Page 176 Figure 4-26 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  37. Putting It All Together Page 176 Figure 4-26 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  38. Keeping Your Computer or Mobile Device Clean Page 177 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  39. Video: The Leopard with a Time Machine CLICK TO START Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  40. Summary Page 178 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition Chapter 4

  41. Chapter 4 Complete