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Tackling Chronic Diseases: the Potential of Preventive Medicine through Improvements to Diet. Cathie Martin, MA, PhD, Professor Department of Metabolic Biology John Innes Centre Norwich Research Park, United Kingdom Niels Bohr Professor, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology

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tackling chronic diseases the potential of preventive medicine through improvements to diet

Tackling Chronic Diseases: the Potential of Preventive Medicine through Improvements to Diet

Cathie Martin, MA, PhD, Professor

Department of Metabolic Biology

John Innes Centre

Norwich Research Park,

United Kingdom

Niels Bohr Professor,

Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology

Copenhagen University,

Denmark

May 2009

slide2

Leading causes of death worldwide, 2005

Respiratory 7%

Injuries 9%

Diabetes 2%

Other chronic disease 9%

Communicable diseases

maternal and perinatal

nutritional deficiencies 30%

Cancer 13%

Cardiovascular disease 30%

Source: World Health Organisation

facts
Facts:
  • The total number of people dying from chronic diseases is twice the number of people dying from infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS.
  • 80% of mortality from chronic disease occurs in low and middle income countries
  • The poor are more vulnerable to chronic disease because of increased exposure to risks and decreased access to health care
  • Chronic diseases cause poverty
  • Without action deaths from chronic diseases will increase by 17% between 2005 and 2015 (WHO report 2005)
slide5

Chronic Conditions:

  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Cancers
  • Respiratory diseases
slide6

Chronic conditions, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD),

diabetes, obesity, cancers and respiratory diseases, account

for 59% of the 57 million deaths annually and 46% of the

global burden of disease.

Of those with chronic conditions 60% are between the

ages of 18 and 64. 90% of seniors have at least one

chronic disease and 77% have two or more chronic

diseases.

slide9

OBESITY

Obesity is a major emerging disease, particularly afflicting the poor.

Obesity has a strong correlation with the incidence of several degenerative diseases, such as type II diabetes, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

slide16

EU: FP6

Objectives: To generate defined dietary material (model

foods) to test the impact of specific flavonoids on

cardiovascular and age-related degenerative diseases

in a whole food context using animal model systems.

To find out what foods are good for you

slide17

Control line (r1)

Genotype: p1r1c1A1

Flavo-enriched line (ACR)

Genotype: p1R1C1A1

8-week treatment

(~15 mg/kg/day)

Effects on ex vivo myocardial infarction

Effects on vascular reactivity

Special diets

Introduction of 20% of corn seeds powder in a standard pellet formula

slide18

Non-ischemic Zone (blue)

Group r1

Infarcted zone

(white)

Ischemic

viable zone

(red)

+

=

Risk Zone

Group ACR

Example of TTC staining for infarct size determination

Marie-Claire Toufektsian, Michel de Lorgeril

slide19

Infarct Size

Marie-Claire Toufektsian, Michel de Lorgeril

anthocyanins offer cardioprotection against ischaemia reperfusion injury

Anthocyanins offer cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury

slide21

National Cancer Institute and

National Research Council in the US

recommend:

5 servings of fruit and/or vegetables

per day

(www.5aday.org)

slide22

Out of 15,000 surveyed only 23%

Americans achieved this intake

More worryingly the numbers attaining

5-a-day have decreased over the

past 10 years

slide25

del/ros

(line N)

del/ros

(line C)

WT

del/ros

(line N)

slide28

Purple tomato –

supplemented

pellets

Red tomato –

supplemented

pellets

p53-/p53- knockout mice

Life span, pathology

slide31

Grand challenges in chronic non-communicable diseases:

The top 20 policy and research priorities for conditions such as diabetes, stroke and heart disease.

Nature, 450, 494-496 22 November 2007

Sponsored by the Oxford Health Alliance

many chronic conditions could be prevented
Many chronic conditions could be prevented:
  • 36 Million of the projected deaths from chronic disease could be avoided by 2015
  • 50% of avoided deaths would be in people <70 years old
  • Economic impact would be enormous: calculated loss in national income to chronic disease in UK is: $33Billion
slide33
Commentary posted by Rachel Nugent

Alas, this Grand Challenge has no money, no Foundation, no benefactor. Indeed, it is a kind of reverse Grand Challenge, as it consists of scientists telling us what needs to be done to address chronic NCDs and hoping that someone will pony up the money to do it.

slide38
One important feature of the tomato study was that it showed that genetic modification is not just a generic technology that is either good or bad, but that very different things can be done with genetic modification of plants—including the development of products that have very real advantages for consumers.

This displaces the debate from ‘it is alright for them’.

slide39
Research on functional foods is best undertaken by publicly-funded organisations:
  • To promote consumer confidence in the results
  • To access and assess the entire range of health-promoting phytonutrients not just those of commercial interest
slide40
But the regulatory burden is too costly for ‘not-for-profit’ organisations to bring improved GMO products to the consumer
  • The social burden is also very heavy in undertaking this research:

One really has to wonder exactly who this tomato will benefit, asked VAS's biosecurity representative, SimonaCapogna. It will undoubtedly help those who hold the patent, those firms that sell it (at an inflated price) and those researchers who use it as a career move or who buy shares in biotech firms……

Detractors do not believe it is possible to use GM technology for the ‘common good’.