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Sue Doe Assistant Professor of English Colorado State University Sue.Doe@colostate.edu

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  1. CLA Orientation for Writing Integration—GTA Preparation for Grading and Responding to Undergraduate Writing Sue Doe Assistant Professor of English Colorado State University Sue.Doe@colostate.edu

  2. Overview of Orientation Day One • Introduction to the CSU gtPathways Writing Integration • A Sample Assignment—Overview, Initial Read, Holistic Criteria and Ranks • GTA panel – How it really works Day Two • Initial Grading of the Paper—Use Course-Provided Scoring Sheet • Develop and Apply Holistic Criteria • Analytic scoring—strategies and choices • The Writing Center Day Three • Commenting/responding to student writing • Common problems students have with academic writing; grading and responding as part of the instructional team • Interventions through peer review, conferences, office hours • International Student Writing • TILT Teaching Certificate and Other Resources

  3. Day One • Introduction to the CSU gtPathways • Writing Integration • A Sample Assignment—Overview and Holistic Sorting • GTA panel

  4. Day 2 • Examination of Course-Provided Score Sheet or other evaluation information • Holistic scoring/sorting—developing criteria, applying criteria, revising criteria—and why • Analytic scoring strategies and choices • standard rubrics • anchor papers • continuum approach • The CSU Writing Center

  5. Day Three • Commenting & responding to student writing • Interventions through peer review, conferences, office hours • The International Student Writer • TILT and the TILT Teaching Certificate • Feedback on orientation

  6. Local Writing Resources • http://writing.colostate.edu • Google search possible on virtually any writing topic. Over 100K pages of writing information, most authored at CSU. • Writing tools available through Writing Studio-keep track of your drafts, your biblios, your reading, etc. Same tools available for undergrads and others • http://writing.colostate.edu/gtPathways • specialized resources to support your efforts with your assistantship • The Writing Center and WAC • Visit Eddy 6 (The physical writing center) or submit papers electronically for feedback • Request a workshop on any writing subject

  7. gtPathways What it is, where it came from

  8. State Guaranteed Transfer: gtPathways • gtPathways Curriculum Adopted as part of the CCHE (now CDOE) Academic Affairs Policy I, Part L: Statewide Transfer Policy. • Built upon concepts found in the Student Bill of Rights (a.k.a, the King Bill), § 23-1-125 C.R.S: • “The Commission, in consultation with each Colorado public institution of higher education, is directed to outline a plan to implement a core course concept” • “The core of courses shall consist of at least thirty credit hours, but shall not exceed forty credit hours” • “Individual institutions of higher education shall conform their own core course requirements with the guidelines developed by the Commission…”

  9. One Policy Goal of gtPathways Students shall have assurance of: “A quality general education experience that develops competencies in reading, writing, mathematics, technology, and critical thinking through an integrated arts and science experience.”

  10. Major Changes to Colorado Colleges and Universities Adams State College: Faculty Senate agreed to adopt gtPathways curriculum for institutional general education curriculum Fort Lewis College: Restructuring entire general education curriculum to meet gtPathways requirements; modifying junior-level writing courses to meet gtPathways requirements (i.e., 200-level) University of Northern Colorado: Charting the Future; reducing general education course offerings to 60-70 courses; restructuring curriculum to meet gtPathwayscurriculum Colorado State University: Integrating writing into general education AHUM and SOCS courses (20% - 25% of grades in writing assignments); adding 3 credit hours in AHUM

  11. Memorandum of Understanding MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS WRITING IN AUCC COURSES IN LIBERAL ARTS Effective Fall 2007 All AUCC courses in Categories 3B, C, D and E of the core must satisfy the following requirements regarding writing. These must be clearly stated on the syllabus for the course. 1. Goals for writing in AUCC courses: There are two goals for writing assignments in AUCC courses: (1) to improve students’ comprehension of course content (2) to improve students’ proficiency in writing. Note (1): Both of these goals are best achieved when students receive feedback on their writing assignments and have an opportunity to make use of that feedback.

  12. MOU continued… 2. Writing requirements: • At least 25 percent of the course grade must be based on written work that satisfies the following: • At least one writing assignment must be an out-of-class piece of written work(2) • In-class written work, such as on exams, must be in the form of essays • Note (2): While this represents a minimum standard, to maximize the benefits to students of more writing, multiple opportunities to write and respond to feedback are recommended, such as: • Several out-of-class writing assignments.OR • One or more rewrites of an out-of-class writing assignment.

  13. MOU continued 2. Writing Requirements (continued) • Expectations of written work must be clearly stated on the syllabus. Among other things the instructor considers appropriate, those expectations should include students demonstrating: (3) • The ability to convey a theme or argument clearly and coherently. • The ability to analyze critically and to synthesize the work of others. • The ability to acquire and apply information from appropriate sources, and reference sources appropriately. • Competence in standard written English. • Note (3): Instructors should use their own discretion in communicating to students the relative importance of the various expectations in their own writing assignments in terms of how they will be graded.

  14. MOU continued 3. Plagiarism Statement: • More writing in AUCC courses also brings the risk of increased incidents of plagiarism. It is strongly recommended that instructors have a statement in their syllabus that clearly states that plagiarism in not acceptable and is a form of academic dishonesty. • Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty. As per university policy “Any student found responsible for having engaged in academic dishonesty will be subject to an academic penalty and/or University disciplinary action.” • The CSU General Catalog defines plagiarism are follows: “Plagiarism includes the copying of language, structure, ideas, or thoughts of another, and representing them as one’s own without proper acknowledgement. Examples include a submission of purchased research papers as one’s own work; paraphrasing and/or quoting material with properly documenting the source.”

  15. Copies of --Written Competency --MOU College of Liberal Arts MOU Simply send an email request to: Sue.Doe@colostate.edu Say: Please send MOU or Please send Written Competency Guidelines These materials are also available on the gtPathways web site at http:writing.colostate.edu/gtPathways

  16. What Matters in College Writing? • Write for a few minutes about • the qualities of writing that you believe all first-year college students should develop—essential abilities they’ll need • your beliefs about student writing ability right now and what that belief is based on • the kinds of support students need to improve • where, how, and when writing instruction should be given in college contexts • Put your name on this piece of paper as you’ll be turning it in. Bring to front table at the end of session today or at a break. • Discuss your beliefs with 2-3 neighboring people

  17. Select Paper 1, 2, or 3 If your last name begins with A-H, take a copy of P1 If your last name begins with I-R, take a copy of P2 If your last name begins with S-Z, take a copy of P3

  18. Intro to Anthropology Assignment Pick a question to write about: Option #1) Katherine went to Mali to address the issues of childhood malnutrition. A)What did she discover to be the primary causes? B) How did she come to these results? (i.e., What questions did she ask? What data did she collect?) Option #2) Malian life is very different from American life. What are some of the biggest differences Katherine encountered? Did Katherine embrace or resist these differences? Explain your answer.

  19. Guidance About Source Use While you don’t need to formally cite my lectures, please use language such as “according to lecture” or “as discussed in class” to alert me to class-specific material. Please remember, any concepts taken from the textbook the ethnography, or RamCT must be cited with an in-text citation and bibliography entry. Examples of how to cite a chapter/article from the textbook: Labajo, J. (2003) Body and voice: the construction of gender in flamenco. In T. Magrini (Ed.) Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp 67.86. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Tollifson, J. (197).Imperfection is a beautiful thing: On disability and mediation. In K. Fries (Ed.), Staring back (pp. 105-112). New York: Plume.

  20. Additional Instructions Write a 3-5 page response. Be sure to: • Provide a short introduction (3 sentences or so) • Include specific details from the ethnography • Incorporate vocabulary and concepts from lecture and the textbook. • Use 1-inch margins and 12-point font • Staple your pages together • Do NOT include a title page or title. Simply put your name and question number in the right-hand corner of the first page • Double space the paper • Follow APA citation and bibliography guidelines • Use proper in-text citation • Include a bibliography • Obtain information on APA format at http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/researchsources/documentation/apa/

  21. Hierarchy of Rhetorical Concerns Audience, Purpose, Occasion Focus: Thesis, Reasons, Unity/Coherence Development: Reasons, Evidence, Explanation Style/Mechanics/Conventions: Readability, Care and Polish, Patterns of Error

  22. Hierarchical Concerns Detailed Audience • Who is the writer’s audience? Is this an academic audience? What are the expectations? Purpose • Is this piece of writing intended to inform? Analyze? Explore? Summarize? Argue? Development • What kinds of evidence does the audience expect? Does the context demand clarification through examples, data, etc.?

  23. Hierarchical Concerns continued Organization • Is the writing organized in a coherent way? • Do transitions guide the reader through the logic of the paper? Style and Conventions • What style is appropriate for the context in terms of audience and purpose? What register or level of formality Is appropriate? (For instance, can the writer use “I” in this context?) • Are there locations where the writing is hard to follow or comprehension is disrupted? If so, can I discern why? • Are there patterns of error showing any of the Top Five error patterns: 1) subject–verb agreement, 2) run-on and fragmented sentences, 3) unclear or incorrect pronoun agreement, 4) verb tense inconsistencies, 5) weak comma use

  24. Holistic Process • Before you begin reading the sample papers, read the assignment information • In groups of three, do a “read-around” of the set of three papers you now have. Sort High, Medium, and Low. • As time allows, discuss the papers with your partners

  25. High Medium and Low What are the standards you would apply to a minimally satisfactory (C-level) performance for this paper? Would the LOW paper meet these standards? Homework Review • In general, does the High Medium Low sorting method lend itself to a 6-point holistic scoring scale? • What parts, if any, from this scoring rubric would work with the essay assignment we’re examining?

  26. Muddiest Point • What remains confusing about ranking papers High, Medium, and Low?

  27. HOMEWORK With Care, Read the “Rubric for Holistic Scoring of a Thesis-Restricted Paper.” Bring this rubric back to training tomorrow. Be prepared to discuss: • How does the High Medium Low sorting method lend itself to a 6-point holistic scoring scale? • What parts, if any, from this scoring guide would work with the essay assignment we are examining?

  28. DAY TWO • Scoring and Grading Using Various Methods • Working for consistency—either faculty-led or GTA-led norming sessions • Grading consistency (for yourself across a stack of papers and also across a group of GTAs or faculty) is possible but isn’t easy or safely assumed to occur • Agreed-upon priorities are essential • Spot-checking by peers or others is desirable

  29. Sort, Read, and Comment (or Stop, Drop, and Roll) Apply the sorting strategy for a set of papers. While this sounds like a time-consuming extra step, it actually saves you time in the long run. The Sorting Strategy • Sort into three stacks—high, medium, low • If possible, stack within categories (High + and High -) so that you have 6 stacks • Read with hierarchy of concerns in mind • Provide an end comment that is forward-looking and focused • Substantiate end comment with a few marginal comments

  30. Grading—Becoming Part of the Instructional Team • Consistency and fairness • Criteria-based grading vs. norming • Time management through Hierarchies of Rhetorical Concern • Holistic and Analytic Evaluation • Grading and Responding—Two Tass

  31. GRADING Remember: you are only assigning a grade; students earn those grades. You do not GIVE grades. They do not GET grades. Consider using a 24-hour moratorium and a conference appointment system for grade protests Ask Your Faculty Supervisor: Will there be calibration or norming sessions to identify standards and/or achieve reliability? Are you allowed to return a paper ungraded in the case of careless or unacceptable work with a 24-hour window of opportunity before default to F? Are revisions allowed? If so, what are the processes?

  32. Grading For What Matters—Purposes of Assignments What is the TASK being required by the assignment—to inform, to explore, to convince, to describe, to compare, to summarize, to persuade? Find the VERB or VERBS and you’ll know the task. Is this • a thesis-provided paper for which students must defend of refute? • a problem-solution paper in which students are given a problem or question that demands a thesis and support? Is • a data-provided paper for which students are expected to analyze and explain? • a genre-provided paper, in which students are expected to follow an organizational structure or format in an accepted form, such as a memo, case study, lab report, or executive summary? • write-to-learn or write-to-engage writing for which students are expected to explore and/or develop their thinking rather than to produce a polished paper? • an in-class essay, reflecting comprehension of course material?

  33. Intro to Anthropology Assignment Pick a question to write about: Option #1) Katherine went to Mali to address the issues of childhood malnutrition. A)What did she discover to be the primary causes? B) How did she come to these results? (i.e., What questions did she ask? What data did she collect?) Option #2) Malian life is very different from American life. What are some of the biggest differences Katherine encountered? Did Katherine embrace or resist these differences? Explain your answer.

  34. Grading Rubric

  35. Holistic Grading Ranking 1-6 Think of 3 as minimally acceptable—aims of assignment are being met but only marginally. “Gestures” toward sound approaches are there, but student will need a great deal of assistance. This is a student who might be considered “at-risk” but also offers a tremendous opportunity for development through GTA impact.

  36. Use scoring tools to assist with grading Consider Three Approaches benchmark and anchor paper approach traditional analytic rubric with dimensions continuum approach

  37. Approach #1: Anchor Papers Consider writing an evaluation paragraph or narrative that explains what’s necessary to earn a C paper on this assignment. In other words, what MUST a paper accomplish to be deemed “adequate” and to exceed this lowest, acceptable standard for this assignment? --The C paper has a clear thesis or focus, shows a satisfactory degree of development /support of points, and is reasonably easy to read/follow --The B paper does everything the C paper does but goes further to provide deeper development of points, a more satisfactory selection of evidence, a coherent structure/organization, and a more compelling set of insights --The A paper does everything the B paper does but goes further to provide a more unified, fully developed, and polished paper that is a pleasure to read because it offers good insights that are expressed well It can be useful to distribute or post this explanation

  38. Approach #2: Traditional Rubric Component Parts • Assignment itself • Dimensions/priorities/criteria • Scale with levels of achievement. Levels can be continuums or reflect categories such as “proficient,” “competent,” “needs work.” Can associate levels with points* • Space for specific comments * Be careful to not create a checklist effect. Remember that meaningful quality indicators will be indicated so the simple presence or absence of a feature is insuficient.

  39. Traditional Rubric with both Holistic and Analytic FeaturesDimension Excellent Competent Needs Work Overall Comment: Grade: ___

  40. Course-Provided Grading Rubric

  41. Steps for Creating Traditional Rubrics • List key elements/features to assess, based on course and assignment objectives • Refine and simplify key elements, then consider their relative importance or weight • Place most important dimension at the top • Do a common sense check to see if weighting of criteria is meaningful and rational. If possible, avoid points. Percentages are better but keep them broad. Too much refinement of points can lead to “grade-grubbing.” • Decide where you will comment--on the rubric or on the paper itself? Commenting itself is not optional. • Decide if you’ll give feedback/comment on all criteria or only on certain ones • Make clear where the overall grade appears

  42. Analytic Rubric for Anthropology Paper The coherence of the argument reflected in the parts Complete and appropriate use of evidence from ethnography, lecture, & textbook The organization and coherence of the essay Readability & Control of citation/biblio style appropriate for academic context.

  43. Course-Provided Grading Rubric

  44. Hybrid Approach—Advantages/Disadvantages?

  45. Consider the Point in the Semester & Feedback Opportunities • If there are several pieces of writing assigned or if feedback is given with opportunity for revision, then consider that you may shift the expectations for a rubric • Early in the semester, students will need to learn about focusing and providing a clear thesis. Later the emphasis can shift to development • If there is only one paper assigned, then there are fewer opportunities to support these developing abilities

  46. Revision Feedback—early semester

  47. Approach #3: The Continuum Approach Once you have determined the most important aspects or criteria for grading, consider using a continuum to describe where the student is in their application of this criteria. This avoids the oft-times awkward approach of assigning points or percentages with criteria-based evaluation. Example (criteria 3) from the Washington State U “Critical Thinking Guide”: Identifies and considers salient perspectives and positions important to the issue’s analysis Scant Substantial ----------------------------------------------------------------

  48. Likely Grading Criteria • Clarity of points and coherence of organization • clearly state the purpose of your essay • answer all questions related to the ethnography • accurately define causes of malnutrition or cultural differences • explain methods of inquiry/discovery and explain whether differences are embraced or resisted 2) Quality/depth of analysis. You need to make your position on each development point clear. Provide arguments that are supported by information (i.e., evidence from text, lecture & ethnography). Meet or exceed the page requirements. MOU seeks synthesis! 3) Quality of writing. Your ideas need to be clearly expressed. This includes proper spelling, grammar, expression of ideas, and citation of sources

  49. MOU continued 2. Writing Requirements (continued) • Expectations of written work must be clearly stated on the syllabus. Among other things the instructor considers appropriate, those expectations should include students demonstrating: (3) • The ability to convey a theme or argument clearly and coherently. • The ability to analyze critically and to synthesize the work of others. • The ability to acquire and apply information from appropriate sources, and reference sources appropriately. • Competence in standard written English. • Note (3): Instructors should use their own discretion in communicating to students the relative importance of the various expectations in their own writing assignments in terms of how they will be graded.